For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: Field, For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: Field,p. For sources such as websites and e-books that cite no page essays, use a paragraph number.
howThe same is true of writing in those social sciences—such as experimental psychology—that rely on controlled studies and emphasize quantifiable results. Almost all of the examples in this handout follow the MLA system of citation, which is widely used in the humanities and in those social sciences with a less quantitative approach. Visit our handout on paraphrase and summary. Why is it important to identify my sources? Quotations come from somewhere, and your reader will want to know where. Letting your reader know exactly which authorities you rely on is an advantage: it shows that you have done your research and that you are well acquainted with the literature on your topic. In the following passage, the parenthetical reference to the author does not adequately identify the source: The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state. Yet the Roman conception of a just war differs sharply from more modern conceptions. When you are making decisions about how to integrate quotations into your essay, you might imagine that you are reading the essay out loud to an audience. You would not read the parenthetical note. Without some sort of introduction, your audience would not even know that the statement about Roman antiquity was a quotation, let alone where the quotation came from. How do I introduce a short quotation? The following offers just one way of introducing the above quotation: The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state. Since the quotation is relatively short, the brief introduction works. You could, however, strengthen your analysis by demonstrating the significance of the passage within your own argument. Introducing your quotation with a full sentence would help you assert greater control over the material: The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state. There is no rectitude whatsoever. There is no virtue. You ought to use an indentation of an additional quarter inch on the initial line of every paragraph. Quoting a poetry. When you need to quote an entire poem or a fragment from a poetry, you ought to preserve the original formatting style of the verses. Insert or leave out words in citations. This may be helpful when you are required to modify the significance of the quote to some extent, for the purpose of providing an adequate context or eliminating certain parts that may be irrelevant to your ideas. Use ellipses … when you wish to leave out a fragment that is irrelevant to your paper. Quoting more than one writer. Quoting Internet articles. Still, you have to try and gather as much data as possible. Quoting a lengthy fragment. You have to start the citation on a new row. Moreover, you need to add an indentation of 0. Afterwards, you need to add the entire fragment while preserving the same margin. If the fragment includes more than one paragraph, you should add an additional indentation of 0. Your citation must also include double spacing. Stick to the same rule that we mentioned when we talked about brief fragments — indicate the writer, year, and page number. You can either do this in the introduction or the body of the citation. Paraphrasing fragments. When you want to paraphrase a fragment in APA formatting style, you have to indicate the writer, the year, and the number of the page, as shown below: Johnson thinks that gym training is great for both the organism and the mind , p. As pointed out by Johnson, people should always find time to go to the gym , p.
More how on citing sources without pagination is given on the APA Style web page. Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al.
Paraphrasing When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion. Paraphrasing from One Page Include a full in-text citation with the author name and page number if there is one. For example: Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies Hunt For example: Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies Hunt 50, 55, Indirect Sources Sources that are paraphrased or quoted in other sources are called indirect sources. MLA recommends you take information from the original source whenever possible. Proceed the in-text citation with 'qtd. Unknown Author Where you'd normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title. Don't count initial articles like "A", "An" or "The". You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your Works Cited list. If the title in the Works Cited list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation. If the title in the Works Cited list is in quotation marks, put quotation marks around the words from the title in the in-text citation. Examples: "Nursing" 12 Repeated Use of Sources If you're using information from a single source more than once in succession i. Note: If using this simplified in-text citation creates ambiguity regarding the source being referred to, use the full in-text citation format. If that passage exceeds four lines some sources say five , then set it off as a block quotation. Be sure you are handling block quotes correctly in papers for different academic disciplines—check the index of the citation style guide you are using. Here are a few general tips for setting off your block quotations: Set up a block quotation with your own words followed by a colon. You normally indent spaces for the start of a paragraph. When setting up a block quotation, indent the entire paragraph once from the left-hand margin. Place parenthetical citation according to your style guide usually after the period following the last sentence of the quote. Follow up a block quotation with your own words. Adams clearly appreciated religion, even if he often questioned its promotion. How do I combine quotation marks with other punctuation marks? It can be confusing when you start combining quotation marks with other punctuation marks. You should consult a style manual for complicated situations, but the following two rules apply to most cases: Keep periods and commas within quotation marks. The main exception to this rule involves the use of internal citations, which always precede the last period of the sentence. Note, however, that the period remains inside the quotation marks when your citation style involved superscript footnotes or endnotes. Take a look at the following examples: The student wrote that the U. In the second example, the exclamation mark remains within the quotation mark because it is indicating the excited tone in which the coach yelled the command. Thus, the exclamation mark is considered to be part of the original quotation. How do I indicate quotations within quotations? If you are quoting a passage that contains a quotation, then you use single quotation marks for the internal quotation. Quite rarely, you quote a passage that has a quotation within a quotation. In that rare instance, you would use double quotation marks for the second internal quotation. When do I use those three dots. Whenever you want to leave out material from within a quotation, you need to use an ellipsis, which is a series of three periods, each of which should be preceded and followed by a space. So, an ellipsis in this sentence would look like. For example, if you take material from the end of a sentence, keep the period in as usual. Even though they were out of breath, they made it on time. Sometimes it is necessary for clarity and flow to alter a word or words within a quotation. You should make such changes rarely. Here are a few examples of situations when you might need brackets: Changing verb tense or pronouns in order to be consistent with the rest of the sentence. Including supplemental information that your reader needs in order to understand the quotation. In rare situations, you may quote from a text that has nonstandard grammar, spelling, or word choice. Using [sic] alerts your reader to the fact that this nonstandard language is not the result of a typo on your part. There is no need to put a period at the end. Do not overuse brackets! For example, it is not necessary to bracket capitalization changes that you make at the beginning of sentences. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing the original version of this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. Barzun, Jacques, and Henry F. The Modern Researcher. Booth, Wayne C. Colomb, and Joseph M.
References Derwing, T. Teaching native speakers to cite to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23 4 Thomas, H.
University of Colorado, Boulder. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any how the union won one page essay source, using the author how date if known. If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words.
- How to cite quotes in essays mla
- Mla how to cite an essay in a book
- How do you cite an anthology if im summarizing an essay
- How to cite website in essay
Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding essay in the how list. For sources with no date use n. Below are examples of citing in-text citation with web pages. Web page with author: Role-play can help children learn techniques for essay with bullying Kraiser, Reference entry Kraizer, S.
MLA Formatting Quotations // Purdue Writing Lab
Preventing bullying. Reference entry All things Nittany.
Reference entry American Psychological Association. Recovering emotionally from disaster. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.
Coursework in englishWithout some sort of introduction, your audience would not even know that the statement about Roman antiquity was a quotation, let alone where the quotation came from. How do I introduce a short quotation? The following offers just one way of introducing the above quotation: The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state. Since the quotation is relatively short, the brief introduction works. You could, however, strengthen your analysis by demonstrating the significance of the passage within your own argument. Introducing your quotation with a full sentence would help you assert greater control over the material: The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state. According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" Foulkes ? Long quotations For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay. For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. For a block quote, your lead in will be an entire sentence that explains what the reader should understand after reading the block quote. At the end of this sentence, put a colon. Then, put your block quote. This is how you would lead into a block quote:  "In The Things They Carried, the items carried by soldiers in the Vietnam war are used to both characterize them and burden the readers with the weight they are carrying: The things they carried were largely determined by necessity. Among the necessities or near-necessities were P can openers, pocket knives, heat tabs, wristwatches, dog tags, mosquito repellent, chewing gum, candy cigarettes, salt tablets, packets of Kool-Aid, lighters, matches, sewing kits, Military Payment Certificates, C rations, and two or three canteens of water. You should indent the first line of each paragraph an extra quarter inch. Then, use ellipses … at the end of one paragraph to transition to the next. Press the tab key to move the lines over. Make sure your entire quote is indented so that your reader will recognize that it's set off from the rest of the text. Sometimes you want to shorten a quote to help your reader better understand why it supports your argument. They are everywhere: on social media, on posters, on billboards, there are even desk calendars to be purchased that share a new inspirational quote every day. You might be wondering why you should consider using inspirational quotes in your essays. To put it lightly, incorporating the right quotes into your work will not only bolster your argument, but it will also better convince the reader to adopt your point of view. Depending on the context of your essay, or the nature of your topic, there are times when an inspirational quote might be the glue that you need to tie it all together. For example, if you are writing an essay on a specific principle or concept and you want to encourage or motivate your audience, using a quote that closely relates to your thesis statement might be what your conclusion needs to transform it from just okay to amazing. Inspirational quotes inspire, they motivate, they encourage, the provoke thought. There is no virtue. You ought to use an indentation of an additional quarter inch on the initial line of every paragraph. Quoting a poetry. When you need to quote an entire poem or a fragment from a poetry, you ought to preserve the original formatting style of the verses. Insert or leave out words in citations. This may be helpful when you are required to modify the significance of the quote to some extent, for the purpose of providing an adequate context or eliminating certain parts that may be irrelevant to your ideas. Use ellipses … when you wish to leave out a fragment that is irrelevant to your paper. Quoting more than one writer. Quoting Internet articles.
Author's name part of narrative: Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
For example: This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in essay, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed cite some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by how to the reading, facilitates comprehension.
Quoting and Paraphrasing: What's the Difference? Signal Phrases If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text how, instead include the page number if there is one at the end of the quotation or cited section. T here are two ways to integrate others' research into your assignment: you can paraphrase or you can quote. Make sure to also include an in-text essay. Make sure to include an in-text citation. About In-Text Citation In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses.
Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite essay by multiple authors in text. Note: When citing multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and.