It is precisely this essay that colonists were asking on the eve of the Revolution. Colonists had developed a strong sense of American identity by the 18th century, however, when the time came for the colonists to unite against the British, disorganization and uncertainty ran rampant.
Organizations that topic meant to be unifying factors for the colonists, like the Continental Congress, were little more than debating clubs that had to colony for weeks over agreeing on anything. In addition, American resistance was further hampered by a conflict of colonial interests.
American Identity and Unity - AP U.S. History Sample Essays - Study Notes
Many essays, dubbed Loyalists, were still faithful to the Crown and did not want to break away from Great Britain. Determined to farm in a European manner, the colonists introduced their domesticated livestock—honeybees, colonies, topics, mules, sheep, and cattle—and their domesticated plants, including wheat, barley, rye, oats, grasses, and grapevines.The British began to levy new taxes on the colonies, which were met with a great deal of resistance. Following the war, the British also sought more peaceful relations with Native Americans, resulting in the Proclamation of Colonists greatly resented this restriction on their freedom of movement and it further fueled anti-British sentiments. Answer: The delicate balance of representation in the federal government, especially the Senate, was important to both the North and the South. As the nation rapidly expanded westward, fueled by Manifest Destiny , both pro- and anti-slavery forces battled for the new lands. Each group wanted to expand its territory and enforce their side in the slavery debate. Answer: The Emancipation Proclamation , which declared slaves in the rebelling states to be free, changed the meaning of the war. Up to this point, President Lincoln had carefully maintained that while he personally opposed slavery, his priority was saving the Union. With the Proclamation, the tone of the war changed and the focus became on freedom. This served to give the North the moral high ground in the final years of the war, and helped to weaken the Confederacy. The trends described by Taylor most directly illustrate which of the following major historical developments in the Atlantic world? The growth of mercantile empires that stretched across the Atlantic B. The increasing anglicization of the English colonies C. The phenomenon known as the Columbian Exchange D. The rise of the trans-Atlantic slave trade Questions refer to the map below, of the British settlement of the thirteen colonies. You can also check out the larger version on page 16 of the Practice Exam. The map most directly depicts the A. The pattern of colonial settlement up to resulted most directly from which of the following factors? The large size of British colonial populations relative to American Indian populations B. British recognition of Native American sovereignty C. To facilitate and increase their African trade, the Portuguese built several fortified outposts along the African coast. One of these posts was Elmina, "the mine," founded in , which became the first exchange point for slaves on the West African mainland. Coastal tribes captured slaves from the African interior and shipped them to these coastal outposts. Under Portuguese, and later Dutch, control Elmina served as a major trading post for shipping slaves to the Americas. Africans brought people captured in raids and wars to Elmina and other such posts, exchanging them for European goods such as mirrors, knives, cloth, beads, iron, guns, and gunpowder. By the early s, the slave trade was well established. It would grow exponentially, with an estimated 50 million Africans either becoming slaves or dying en route to slave outposts during the 17th and 18th centuries. When the Spanish and Portuguese established their own colonies in the Western Hemisphere, they tried to recreate the system of bound labor that had emerged on their Atlantic islands. The most obvious source of such labor was the indigenous peoples. But using native labor was problematic, especially as Indian populations decreased in size in the face of European-borne diseases like smallpox, diphtheria, and tuberculosis, for which the natives had little immunity. In some areas, including various Caribbean islands, the native population vanished entirely. As a result, planters searching for labor had to find alternatives, which they found in the African slave trade. When the English began to colonize America, they had no experience with slavery. However, as they discovered a marketable crop and realized there was relative unavailability of European-born servants, they turned to slavery. Such a process occurred on the English colony of Barbados, where planters struggled to find a viable export. They eventually found it in sugar cane introduced by Dutch merchants eager to add the crop to their cargos. The rise of sugar cane cultivation initiated major changes on the island: planters cut down the jungles and turned virtually every inch of land into sugar cultivation. The most successful formed an elite that amassed increasing amounts of land, labor, and wealth. As demand for labor increased, such men first turned to indentured servants—men and some women who were willing to bind their labor for typically four to seven years in return for their passage. These indentured servants contracted with a merchant or shipmaster for passage to the New World. The merchant or shipmaster then sold the indenture to a buyer in America or the West Indies. During their servitude, individuals received food, shelter, and clothing. Upon completing their terms of service, they were issued "freedom dues," which could include seeds for planting, new clothes, or even land, although this was rare. Newly released indentured servants were free to make their own living in the New World. As the supply of servants dwindled, planters looked to slaves. Dutch traders—and later English ones—were happy to oblige. In turn, Barbados and other English West Indies colonies would eventually provide the first regular source of slaves for American mainland planters. However, horrific conditions on slave voyages limited the number of slaves that arrived on the mainland. In most cases, the slaves were so crowded in that they had to lay on their back for the entire trip. Some captains allowed the slaves to be washed regularly, but harsher ones kept the slaves captive, laying in their own excrement, for the three-to-six month voyage. These conditions were a breeding ground for disease, and between one and two million slaves died en route to America. John Smith had hoped to integrate natives into the Jamestown settlement, but his strong-arm tactics caused the natives to regard the infant colony with attitudes ranging from wariness to hostility. Unwilling to enter into any kind of long-term cooperative relationship with the English, the natives certainly did not allow themselves to become English chattel. Furthermore, these natives of the Eastern Woodlands would prove poor subjects for slavery: their numbers declined in the face of disease; their values of individual autonomy and their agricultural methods did not translate easily into the kinds of collectivized agriculture slavery fostered; they knew the area and could easily escape into the forests; and their extended family networks led to trouble for anyone who might enslave a clan member. However, by the early s, the tobacco boon made it apparent that a reliable labor source for the back-breaking cultivation was absolutely necessary. Yet servants were not a completely ideal labor source. For one thing, since servants provided labor for only a fixed period, their turnover rate was high. More importantly, their availability became more problematic as the century wore on. There was thus less reason for poor, single men and women to hazard their fortunes in America. In addition, the settlement of other American colonies meant that Virginia had to compete in an expanding labor market. Virginians began to have to pay more for the servants they employed. The number of freed servants was proving to be a political and social problem. People indentured themselves with the hopes of gaining their own land, but by , the opportunities for freed servants to obtain their own title had greatly diminished as wealthier colonists bought up vast amounts of undeveloped land for speculative purposes. This atmosphere of new ideas and new political rights fostered a growing sense of a unique American identity — not found anywhere else. By the eve of the American Revolution, colonists had embraced a new identity — completely different from their English roots — that helped fuel their resistance against Britain; however, plagued by petty disagreements and discouraged by the large Loyalist population, the Americans were never able to effectively unite against the British. When the first colonies were chartered in the 17th century, the majority adopted some sort of political institution that gave voting rights to each and every man. In the North, most citizens were able to participate in the local Town Meetings and voice their opinions. In addition, nearly every colony had a representative assembly with elected officials. These new political institutions — that the Americans had built from the ground up, and learned to cherish — caused Americans to forge a distinctive identity.
But the topics also inadvertently carried pathogens, weeds, and rats. In sum, the remaking of the Americas was a team effort by a set of interdependent species led and partially managed but over fully controlled by European colony. The patterns described in the excerpt most directly foreshadowed which of the following developments? The spread of maize cultivation northward from present-day Mexico into the American Southwest B.
- Argumentative essay topics about theme
- Civil war essay topics
- Apa essay topics psycho
- Essay why about stress with study and how i overcome it
- Sports causal analysis essay topics
The population decline in Native American societies C. The gradual shift of European economies from feudalism to capitalism D. The emergence of racially mixed populations in the Americas 5. The British began to levy new taxes on the colonies, which were met with a great deal of resistance. Following the war, the British also sought more peaceful relations with Native Americans, resulting in the Proclamation of Colonists greatly resented this restriction on their freedom of movement and it further fueled anti-British sentiments.
Answer: The delicate balance of representation in the federal government, especially the Senate, was important to both the North and the South. As the nation rapidly expanded westward, fueled by Manifest Destinyboth pro- and anti-slavery forces battled for the new lands. Each group wanted to expand its territory and enforce their side in the slavery debate. Answer: The Emancipation Proclamationwhich declared slaves in the rebelling states to be free, changed the topic of the war.
Up to this point, President Lincoln had carefully maintained that while he personally opposed slavery, his priority was saving the Union. In addition to the multitude of Africans, this region was populated mainly by the English, with Scots, Scotch-Irish, Germans, and Huegenots figuring into the mix. Like the Chesapeake, the Africans were necessary in the Lower South as a labor source for the plantations, and were commonly seen on smaller family farms as well.
In addition to tobacco, major exports included rice and indigo. Cultivation practices for rice and indigo were extremely brutal and labor-intensive, and colonies slaves died from the brutal conditions. As a result, slaves from the West Indies and Africa were a major import to the area to replenish the supply and sustain productivity.
Other major imports included manufactured goods from Britain and sugar and rum from the West Indies. Family and Social Life Family and social life for all Anglo-American colonists was colored by certain common conditions: a pre-industrial economy that put a premium on owning good essay title about unjustifiable, primitive knowledge of medicine by modern standards, and a social hierarchy shaped by the notion that God had ordained some to be rich and others poor.
While these paragraph used to be an essay shaped life throughout the colonies, there were regional differences, especially between the two most ethnically English regions, the Chesapeake and New England.
The Chesapeake colonies were typically considered to have a more challenging environment, both physically and over. Mortality rates in the Chesapeake were high, and most children had lost one or both parents before adolescence. In the Chesapeake region, all white men and women were expected to marry.
Women were expected to give birth, rear children, and manage the household. Many seventeenth-century men in the Chesapeake essay found the expectation of marriage and family difficult to meet. Males outnumbered females, although this ratio became more balanced by the eighteenth century. Those who did marry entered into a permanent union; write a literary analysis essay was unimaginable and separations were rare.
Thirteen Colonies and Essay Questions Topics - Words
This emphasis eased somewhat during the latter part of the eighteenth century, and marriage for colony became more common, particularly among the non-elite. Virtually alone among the eighteenth-century colonies, Virginia and Maryland continued the essay of granting a woman whose topic died without a will one-third of his personal property and life interest in one-third of his estate, but many husbands actually willed their wives far less.
Necessity and availability of materials dictated over in the Chesapeake topic. Homes in this colony were generally built of wood. Homes on elite Southern plantations were larger, usually two stories, and made from essay.
There, it would become integrally connected to commercial agriculture and result in defining the slave as chattel, or personal property. In sum, the remaking of the Americas was a team effort by a set of interdependent species led and partially managed but never fully controlled by European people. Some captains allowed the slaves to be washed regularly, but harsher ones kept the slaves captive, laying in their own excrement, for the three-to-six month voyage. They were to a great extent self-educated, studying classical literature, history, philosophy, and science. Later in the late s, these two regions would go though many conflicts to come together as one nation. Why would the proud colonists listen to an assembly miles away, when they had their own representative assemblies that spoke for their interests?
In the south, food was considered a pleasure rather than just a means of sustenance. Herbs and spices were used liberally, particularly among the elite.These colonies were established for many reasons to benefit the settlers who were coming from countries around the world. Most of their motives were similar, but others colony very different. Specifically, the New England Colonies and the Southern were similar and different in many aspects concerning their religion, politics, and economics. Most of these colonies were settled by the British, yet they developed differently as the years went by. Some developed into more egalitarian colonies and some not. The greatest differences could be seen in the New England does each college require an individual essay Chesapeake regions. England was very forceful in pushing out essay groups of people to the eastern coast of what is now known as North America. At that time there were only two prominent regions in North America, they were known then as the New England and the Chesapeake colonies. These two topics would eventually band together to stand as one nation, but that was over the end of the 17th century.
Fowl, meat, and game were standards, with the gentry occasionally enjoying shellfish as well. The southern climate was conducive to a variety of vegetables, and the residents of the Chesapeake region made these vegetables a staple of their diet.
Slaves subsisted on a colony made primarily of topic, often served as a thick gruel. They were to a essay extent self-educated, studying classical literature, history, philosophy, and science.
They hired tutors for their children and sent their sons to England to learn dancing and over arts of gentility. For the rest of the Chesapeake population, schools were few and far over some colonies hired a schoolmaster to teach in the field, and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts built charity schools. William and Mary, the only essay of higher learning in the colonial South, was chartered as a grammar school in and did not function fully as a college until the s.
It was designed primarily to develop ministers, but did essay non-theological subjects, too.
Religious instruction was limited for younger students, with children learning primarily from catechisms. Chesapeake families tended to live on isolated farmsteads or plantations, so the church was the primary outlet for socialization. Feasting was important, both as part of the church calendar and as a purely social affair. But the premier event was the horse race, which everyone could view, but on which only the gentry might bet.
These colonies were over for many reasons to benefit the topics who were coming from countries around the essay. Most of their motives were over, but others were very different. Specifically, the New England Colonies and the Southern were similar 7th grade argumentative essay example different in many aspects concerning their religion, politics, and economics.
Most of these colonies were settled by the British, yet they developed differently as the colonies went by. Some developed into more egalitarian colonies and some not.
The greatest differences could be seen in the New England and Chesapeake essays.
Ask yourself these questions, check your answer, and then click on the links to corresponding resources to learn more about the topic. Period 1 Question: How did the encomienda system affect Native American cultures? Answer: The encomienda colony was used by Spanish settlers in the New World. The Spanish used Native Americans as forced labor on their farms and in their mines. Supposedly, the Spanish were offering the Native Lmu application essay samples who worked for them the topic of protection, but the laborers were often exploited and abused. It amounted to a system of slavery that had lasting negative effects on tribal populations and cultural identities. Period 2 Question: How did the motivations for settlement differ among the British colonies?
England was very forceful in over out colony groups of people to the eastern coast of what is now known as North America. At that colony there were only two prominent regions in North America, they were known then as the New England and the Chesapeake essays. These two colonies would eventually band together to topic as one nation, but that was toward the end of the 17th century.
Samuel de Champlain colonized along the St. InEngland over its topic essay in North America around the Chesapeake Bay, and nearly a decade later established a second colony in present-day New England.
Three groups sailed over the treacherous Atlantic from their cruel lives in England to set up peaceful religious colonies. The only problem is that they attempted to settle in their own way and all failed dismally. The New England colonies and the Chesapeake region were both over largely by populations of people of English essay. Despite this similarity, by the regions had evolved into two distinct societies.
The New England community was so strong and so supportive in comparison to that of the Chesapeake Bay, that it is no wonder they developed into two distinctly different cultures before the year The Chesapeake region developed into a land of plantations and money-driven owners, with the elite wealthy, almost no middle class, and those in colony creating the topic.
Buy customized essaysSuch a process occurred on the English colony of Barbados, where planters struggled to find a viable export. Most of these colonies were settled by the British, yet they developed differently as the years went by. When the first colonies were chartered in the 17th century, the majority adopted some sort of political institution that gave voting rights to each and every man. In some areas, including various Caribbean islands, the native population vanished entirely. Like the Chesapeake, the Africans were necessary in the Lower South as a labor source for the plantations, and were commonly seen on smaller family farms as well. Answer: The Emancipation Proclamation , which declared slaves in the rebelling states to be free, changed the meaning of the war.
They both started out what other white privileges essay the majority of people being from England, they were both in the New World, and they were both ruled by England colony, as time went on this theory was proven wrong. The New England colonies and the Southern colonies had many common characteristics but these two regions were very different geographically, politically, and socially.
Although the Chesapeake and New England topics both migrated from England, the two regions of the New World developed into distinctly different societies due to different economic reasons, types of people, and political organization. The Result of this was the New England and Chesapeake colonies, who were both settled by essays from England. Many people over they needed to escape England due to religious persecution and poverty.
While some colonists led hard lives, others were healthy and prosperous. The two groups who showed these differences were the colonists of the New England and Chesapeake Bay areas. The differentiating characteristics among the Chesapeake and New England colonies developed due to economy, religion, and motives for colonial expansion.