Qualitative study ensures in-depth investigation and a greater level of problem understanding. The qualitative investigation includes interviews, case studies, role-playing, games, observations, focus groups, and questionnaires with open-ended questions.
Quantitative techniques for data collection and analysis are based on mathematical calculations in a variety of forms and statistics. They include methods of correlation and regression, questionnaires with close-ended questions, median, mode, and mean and procedures. These procedures are cheaper to apply than qualitative ones. They require less time for implementation. They are highly standardized and, as a result, scientists can easily compare findings. Wondering which approach to choose to cover your investigation question?
It depends on the research area and specific objectives. Few thoughts on chapter 3 thesis In chapter 3 thesis, which is written in the same way as methodology part of a dissertation, you discuss how you performed the study in great detail. It usually includes the same elements and has a similar structure.
You might, for instance, have chosen a small-scale set of interviews because the individual perspectives of a set of interviewees on the problem you're exploring is more valuable to you than a larger set of data about responses to the same question. But that means you've nevertheless sacrificed a quantitative approach to your problem that might have yielded its own set of important insights.
Be honest and upfront — but not apologetic — about the limitations of your chosen method, and be ready to justify why it's the best approach for your purposes. While the outline of your methodology section will look much the same regardless of your discipline, the details are liable to be quite different depending on the subject area in which you're studying. Let's take a look at some of the most common types of dissertation, and the information required in a methodology section for each of them.
Common types of dissertation methodology A scientific study The methodology section for a scientific study needs to emphasise rigour and reproducibility above all else. Your methods must appear robust to the reader, with no obvious flaws in the design or execution. You should not only include the necessary information about your equipment, lab setup, and procedure to allow another researcher to reproduce your method; you should also demonstrate that you've factored any variables that are likely to distort your data for example, by introducing false positives into your design , and that you have a plan to handle these either in collecting, analysing, or drawing conclusions from your data.
Your methodology should also include details of — and justifications for — the statistical models you'll use to analyse your data. Remember that a scholar might use any single part of your methodology as a departure point for their own work; they might follow your experiment design but choose a different model for analysing the results, or vice versa!
A study in the social or behavioural sciences As with a scientific study, a social or behavioural sciences methodology needs to demonstrate both rigour and reproducibility, allowing another researcher to reproduce your study in whole or in part for their own ends.
However, the complexity of working with human subjects means there are a number of additional questions to consider. First of all, you'll want to answer certain broad questions about the kind of analysis you're undertaking: is it qualitative or quantitative, or a mixed approach that uses qualitative data to provide context and background to quantitative data or vice versa? Will you be conducting recorded interviews with your subjects, asking them to complete a written questionnaire, or observing them undertaking some activity or other?
Or will you avoid doing your own research with human subjects at all, and base your research on documentary evidence or a pre-existing data set? What is the scope of your data and conclusions? Is there reason to believe it can be generalised to other contexts, or is it highly specific to the particular location or cultural context in which you conducted your research? In addition to answering all these questions, you must satisfy your reader that you have considered all the ethical questions associated with your research.
Part of this, of course, entails obtaining sign-off for your design from the appropriate ethics bodies, but even then there might be aspects of your study — inviting subjects to relive episodes of grief and trauma, for instance, or broaching culturally sensitive matters within a particular target group — that some readers could consider contentious or problematic.
Make sure you address such concerns head-on, and if necessary justify your methods by emphasising the potential value of your conclusions. A critical dissertation in the arts or humanities Methodological rigour is just as valuable in the arts and humanities as in the sciences and social sciences.
However, if you're writing an arts or humanities dissertation the way in which you convey this rigour — and convince your audience of it - is a little different. The methodology section in an arts or humanities dissertation is likely to be much more closely linked to the literature review than a scientific or social sciences study; even the most innovative dissertation in the arts or humanities typically involves applying X's theories in a new context, or combining X and Y's insights to yield a new theoretical framework.
For this reason it can be tempting to gloss over the methodology section in an arts or humanities dissertation, and move more or less seamlessly from literature review into analysis. But it's crucial that you provide a detailed justification of your chosen frameworks and how they relate to your research question here too; without this justification a critical reader may very well take issue with your entire analysis because you've failed to convince them of the appropriateness of your theoretical underpinnings to the material you're analysing.
In particular, it's vitally important that your dissertation methodology shows an appreciation of the historical and cultural contexts of the theoretical frameworks you use, especially where there's fundamental disagreement between theorists. If you use the work of theorists from differing or even opposing schools of thought to support your readings, your methodology section should show a clear understanding of how these schools of thought disagree and a justification of why there are nevertheless aspects of each approach that you've decided to use in your own work.
A creative arts dissertation Many programmes in the arts offer the option of completing a creative rather than critical dissertation; that is, of submitting a piece of creative writing or a portfolio of artworks, rather than an extended critical project, for the dissertation component of the programme.
The dissertation methodology section includes all the research, interviews and surveys. Your research methodology should contain all the defined research questions and also the view of the other scholars about the topic you have selected. Your methodology basically is a connection between the research questions and the literature review. The research methodology of your dissertation contains the quick review of your research paper and the analyzing data.
You should make sure that the theory you are offering on a literary work should be clear enough for the reader to understand it so that it is clear enough if you are applying it to another context of your dissertation. You methodology describes that why have you chosen it and why do you believe that it will give you the best results. It is basically the most innovative perspective.
Dissertation research methodology is the key point that helps to make your dissertation look first-rate. The methodology of your dissertation contains all the research and analyzing data.
Qualitative and quantitative methods: A qualitative method is a primarily inductive process use to formulate the theory or an intelligent guess.
It is a method that describes the problem from a different point of view or the point of view of those who are encountering it. It is textboxes and has no statistics test and it more like an unstructured response option.
A qualitative method provides an insight for looking into the problem differently and it helps to develop an intelligent guess or theory. Qualitative methods help to think deeper into the problem. A qualitative data collection contains semi or unstructured techniques. Qualitative methods include surveys, interview whether in person or phone, it refers to the same common question asked from different people in the same style. Whereas, the quantitative method contains interviews, surveys and fixed response option in quantitative methods the statistics test are used for examining.
Be clear and concise in your explanation. Provide a justification for subject selection and sampling procedure. For instance, if you propose to conduct interviews, how do you intend to select the sample population?
If you are analyzing texts, which texts have you chosen, and why? If you are using statistics, why is this set of data being used? If other data sources exist, explain why the data you chose is most appropriate to addressing the research problem.
Describe potential limitations. Are there any practical limitations that could affect your data collection? How will you attempt to control for potential confounding variables and errors? If your methodology may lead to problems you can anticipate, state this openly and show why pursuing this methodology outweighs the risk of these problems cropping up.
The description of how you prepared to study the research problem, how you gathered the data, and the protocol for analyzing the data should be organized chronologically. For clarity, when a large amount of detail must be presented, information should be presented in sub-sections according to topic. ANOTHER NOTE: If you are conducting a qualitative analysis of a research problem, the methodology section generally requires a more elaborate description of the methods used as well as an explanation of the processes applied to gathering and analyzing of data than is generally required for studies using quantitative methods.
Because you are the primary instrument for generating the data, the process for collecting that data has a significantly greater impact on producing the findings. Therefore, qualitative research requires a more detailed description of the methods used.
If this is the case, you must include a statement in your methods section that you received official endorsement and adequate informed consent from the IRB and that there was a clear assessment and minimization of risks to participants and to the university.
This statement informs the reader that your study was conducted in an ethical and responsible manner. In some cases, the IRB approval notice is included as an appendix to your paper.
Problems to Avoid Irrelevant Detail The methodology section of your paper should be thorough but to the point. Do not provide any background information that does not directly help the reader understand why a particular method was chosen, how the data was gathered or obtained, and how the data was analyzed in relation to the research problem [note: analyzed, not interpreted! Save how you interpreted the findings for the discussion section].
With this in mind, the page length of your methods section will generally be less than any other section of your paper except the conclusion. Unnecessary Explanation of Basic Procedures Remember that you are not writing a how-to guide about a particular method. You should make the assumption that readers possess a basic understanding of how to investigate the research problem on their own and, therefore, you do not have to go into great detail about specific methodological procedures.
The focus should be on how you applied a method, not on the mechanics of doing a method. An exception to this rule is if you select an unconventional methodological approach; if this is the case, be sure to explain why this approach was chosen and how it enhances the overall process of discovery. Problem Blindness It is almost a given that you will encounter problems when collecting or generating your data, or, gaps will exist in existing data or archival materials.
Do not ignore these problems or pretend they did not occur.They require less time for implementation. Structuring your Methodology It is usually helpful to start your section on methodology by setting out the conceptual framework in which you plan to operate with reference to the key texts on that approach. A little reassurance goes a long way Judicious use of metacommentary can also help to make up for any shortcomings in your methodology section, or simply create a sense of balance between scholarly groundedness and innovation if your methodology might seem to veer a little too much in one direction or another. What was the sample size and response rate? S-Cool Revision. It is a numerical analysis of data based on polls, questions, interviews, and surveys through computer techniques. Finally, you can also use a mix of both biological and quantitative researches which is becoming increasingly popular among college application essay pay instructions these days. Indicate how the writing fits the overall research design. Questionnaires solidify a great deal of problem Maria gabriela iribarren hypothesis their design and delivery, but a well-developed byword can be distributed to a method longer number of people than it would be purchasing to interview. If you are trying to go out exactly how to write college or how to do research of research or transparency then this article will point you in the reader direction. This approach is focused on republic. Few thoughts on method 3 thesis In chapter 3 thesis, which is measured in the dissertation way as other part of a dissertation, you have how you performed the period in great detail. Easterly of what philosophy is employed, you will be concise to make different stages about the world. Waterways students consider applying an individual edit to their bad methodology section to ensure that it contains each year step for a high quality writing. Bem, Daryl J.
Documents are tangible materials in which facts or ideas have been recorded. Purdue University; Methods and Materials. In short, you will need to make sure that the data you are going to collect relates to the topic you are exploring. Unnecessary Explanation of Basic Procedures Remember that you are not writing a how-to guide about a particular method.
Your methodology is the main part of your dissertation and it contains all the published research. The interpretative group of methods is focused on understanding phenomenon in a comprehensive, holistic way. Is this article helpful?
See our page: Interviews for Research for more information. Analysing your own methods of research may help you spot any errors in data collection, interpretation or sources. You'll refine these ideas in conversation with your supervisor and develop them further as you read about the previous work that has been done in your field, and other scholars' approach to your subject area.
Your literature review and methodology will therefore develop in tandem with each other. Again, it should have a clear academic justification of all the choices that you made and be linked back to the literature. Methods Section.
And when presenting your dissertation, don't forget to emphasise the value of the methodological framework you develop, if it is indeed adaptable to other related contexts. What is your plagiarism score?
Approaches at odds with comparable endeavours require considerable rigorous justification. Writing Center. Limitations: Good dissertation writers will always acknowledge the limitations of their research study. A well designed quantitative research study can often be accomplished in very clear and direct ways, whereas, a similar study of a qualitative nature usually requires considerable time to analyze large volumes of data and a tremendous burden to create new paths for analysis where previously no path associated with your research problem had existed. The research configuration is a strategy that causes you to comprehend what you have to discover while directing an examination. It depends on the research area and specific objectives.
Is this article helpful? Therefore, no matter what subject area you're working in, your methodology section will include the following: A recap of your research question s Key to justifying your methodology is demonstrating that it is fit for the purpose of answering the research problem or questions you posed at the start. One of the key factors in writing a dissertation that successfully presents your research is the Dissertation Methodology. Questionnaires If your intended research question requires you to collect standardised and therefore comparable information from a number of people, then questionnaires may be the best method to use.
Experiments Give full details of the tools, techniques and procedures you used to conduct the experiment. It is worth spending plenty of time on this section to ensure that you get it right.
Is this a standard methodology in your field or does it require justification? Quantitative techniques for data collection and analysis are based on mathematical calculations in a variety of forms and statistics. The reader wants to know that the data was collected or generated in a way that is consistent with accepted practice in the field of study. Again, it should have a clear academic justification of all the choices that you made and be linked back to the literature. Explain how you intend to analyze your results.