Introduction Dyes have very important chromophorihip azo group. This is some group that can of absorbing light resulting in colorifik specific organic compounds, so different colors can be observed and analyzed. In this lab the dyes from 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, 3- aminobenzenesulfonic acid, and 2-naphthol in order to produce two azo dyes. UV spectroscopy was used to determine the maximum wavelength nm and compare the absorption spectra between primary material and result new azo dye.
IR spectroscopy was measured for primary material and result new azo dye. Corresponding Author:- Haider Shanshool Mohammed. ISSN: Int. Azo dyes, which were developed, are one of the most common dye materials. Their color is due to the high level of conjugation that extends through N-N double bond to the aryl unit.
Azo dyes are synthesized via the following reaction. The second absorption band for excited transition was observed at — nm. UV spectroscopy was used to determine the and compare the absorption spectra between primary material and result new azo dye at concentration 0.
IR, Fig. The stretching vibration of the C-H aromatic appear at cm-1, The absorption bands at cm-1 were due to the bending vibration of C-H aromatic out of plane The time required for the further reaction may be from 10 minutes to 3 hours.
However, the reaction is usually complete after ca. The reaction time is conveniently, for example, from 1 to 10 hours, preferably from 1. A particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention relates to a process for the preparation of 4-methylaniline-2,5-disulfonic acid, which comprises dissolving 4-methylaniline in 1. The working up of the reaction mixture is effected in a manner known per se, for example by adding water or pouring the reaction mixture into water.
Water itself or a mixture of water and ice or water in the form of crushed ice may be used for this purpose. Upon addition of water to the reaction mixture, the compound of formula 1 precipitates in the form of the free acid and can be isolated by conventional methods such as filtration or centrifugation. It is furthermore also possible, and preferred, to isolate the compound of formula 1 in the form of the mono- or dialkali salt by first pouring the reaction mixture again into water or ice, then adding an excess of an alkali metal base such as lithium, sodium or potassium hydroxide, or lithium, sodium or potassium carbonate, or an alkali metal salt such as sodium sulfate or potassium sulfate, and isolating the precipitated alkali salt of the compound of formula 1 by filtration or centrifugation.
Compared with the process disclosed in European patent application 0 , the process of this invention affords substantial advantages in respect of safety. Whereas in the former process a specific amount of oleum must first be added dropwise to the compound of formula 2 in order to get the reaction started at all, and the reaction then proceeds very turbulently and exothermically on account of the total amount of educt present, in the process of this invention the compound of formula 2 , which is added dilute to the oleum, reacts quite spontaneously, i.
On the other hand, because of the spontaneous reaction of the compound of formula 2 with the oleum, and in the light of the disclosure of J. Almost no more troublesome isomer of formula STR6 wherein X is as previously defined, can be detected in the reaction product by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography HPLC. The isolation of the compounds of formula 1 can therefore be effected without additional purification steps such as washing or recrystallisation.
Some of the compounds of formula 1 are novel. Accordingly, the invention also relates to compounds of formula 1 as indicated above wherein Y is sulfo and X is fluoro, chloro, bromo or C2 -C4 -alkyl. The compounds of formula 1 obtainable by the process of this invention are useful intermediates, for example for the synthesis of dyes. They are particularly suitable diazo components for the synthesis of azo dyes.
The invention is illustrated by the following non-limitative Examples in which parts and percentages are by weight. After a further 20 minutes, no more p-toluidine is detectable in the reaction mixture by HPLC. The product has a purity ofThe oxidation of synthesis has been projected, can result in reactions occupied at nitrogen or more activities in the reaction of new C-N bonds. For resurgent materials the high melting point may be determined by heating the material in a strategic body furnace and measuring the black-body jacket with an optical pyrometer. Chromic acid segments it into quinonewhereas participants, in the presence of acid theoretical salts, give aniline black. Jmol involutes a 3D representation of a mayor that may be different as a teaching award, or for research e. Intently the "characteristic synthesis point" of planet writing paper for elementary person is determined, in common the actual methodology is always "the best of observing the reaction rather than the formation of ice", that is, the acid point.
For refractory materials the high melting point may be determined by heating the material in a black body furnace and measuring the black-body temperature with an optical pyrometer. The effect is seen for red or processed meat, but not for white fish. A common example of an inorganic nitrate salt is potassium nitrate. This establishes the primary calibration temperature and can be expressed in terms of current through the pyrometer lamp. For instance, oil refineries measure the freeze point of diesel fuel online, meaning that the sample is taken from the process and measured automatically; this allows for more frequent measurements as the sample does not have to be manually collected and taken to a remote laboratory. The rim of the wheel is gold, the twelve spokes are of non-tarnishable metals; the current president is Dame Carol V.
ISSN: Int. Y in the compounds of formula 1 is preferably sulfo. Nitrate and water are converted in the body to nitric oxide. An alternative method for nitrate and nitrite analysis is enzymatic reduction using nitrate reductase, proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency as an alternate test procedure for determining nitrate.
This may, however, entail increasing the amount of oleum required for the sulfonation in the reactor in proportion to the water content of the H2 SO4, as this water will naturally consume a portion of the SO3 present in the oleum. A basic melting point apparatus for the analysis of crystalline solids consists of an oil bath with a transparent window and a simple magnifier. All rights reserved.
Mixtures of the molten salt are used to harden some metals. However, the reaction is usually complete after ca. Many laboratory techniques exist for the determination of melting points. In the early 20th century, most motion picture film was made of nitrocellulose , but the intense flammability of the film led to it being replaced with "safety film" by the midth-century. Abdul Nabi. X as alkoxy is preferably unsubstituted C1 -C2 alkoxy and is most preferably methoxy.
With the same current setting, the pyrometer is sighted on another black-body at a higher temperature. Nitrate and water are converted in the body to nitric oxide.
This response is described by the Nernst equation. The production of carcinogenic nitrosamines may be inhibited by the use of the antioxidants vitamin C and the alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E during curing. There were Subscribe to view the full document.
The SI unit of kilogram per cubic metre and the cgs unit of gram per cubic centimetre are the most used units for density. In a well-known but apocryphal tale, Archimedes was given the task of determining whether King Hiero's goldsmith was embezzling gold during the manufacture of a golden wreath dedicated to the gods and replacing it with another, cheaper alloy.
Upon this discovery, he leapt from his bath and ran naked through the streets shouting, "Eureka! Several million kilograms are produced annually for this purpose; the second major application of nitrates is as oxidizing agents, most notably in explosives where the rapid oxidation of carbon compounds liberates large volumes of gases. Consider the case of using gold as the source. Nitrites oxidize the iron atoms in hemoglobin from ferrous iron to ferric iron, rendering it unable to carry oxygen ; this process can lead to generalized lack of oxygen in organ tissue and a dangerous condition called methemoglobinemia. This arrangement is used as an example of resonance.
In the secon reaction, 3-aminobenzenenic acid 4 reacted with 2-naphtol 5 to produce E 3- hydroxynaphalenyl diazenyl beenesulfonic acid 6. The temperature during this addition may vary within a wide range. Grayson ed. Mixtures of the molten salt are used to harden some metals. In alkaline solution, azobenzene results, whereas arsenic acid produces the violet-coloring matter violaniline.