Photograph by David Jackson. It now seems clear that the schools of Gandhara and Mathura each independently evolved its own characteristic depiction of the Buddha about the 1st century ce. The Gandhara school drew upon the anthropomorphic traditions of Roman religion and represented the Buddha with a youthful Apollo-like face, dressed in garments resembling those seen on Roman imperial statues.
Stupas were initially built with circular bases and were of modest size, but as the cult of the Buddha grew in importance in the region, these centers of worship were elaborately designed and adorned to boost the stature of the religion and to attract more worshippers. The original stupas at Kunala and Dharmarajika were small affairs which were later on expanded to grand proportions by rulers such as Asoka and Kanishka.
A base medhi , either circular or square, would support a drum or cylinder on top of which the dome anda would be placed. Steps were used to surmount the platform and to begin the clockwise circumbobulation around the dome along the processional path Pradakshina Patha which was bounded by the railing vedika. The corners of the base were usually affixed with lion capital pillars and the top of the dome had first a harmika, an inverted square enclosure on which stood the yasti or pillar which had the various chattras or parasols diminishing sizes equally distributed along it.
The stupas came to represent the zenith of buddhist architectural achievement in the region and of course, as with the artwork, they are also meant solely to promote the religious power structures. The stupas themselves were decorated with uncountable relief panels and friezes depicting religious stories and events further solidifying their role.
The stupa was the main center of worship and in support it had the monastery, a structure with its own fully contained living area for monks. The monastery or Sangharama became a huge part of the Buddhist tradition and over time came to be its own self-sustaining unit, with lands for growing crops and wealth showered on them by lay people and royalty alike for their blessings.
Aside from these religious buildings there was of course civic architecture as well which varied and changed with respect to the cultural prevalent in the region. Cities ranged from freely-planned organic settlements such as Bhir to the more rigid and planned out settlements like Sirsukh, with the city of Sirkap somewhere in between in terms of planning and layout.
The older cities tend to be more organically laid out while the newer ones seem to be very directly inspired by the Greek Hippodamian plan which surfaces later on in the 1st cent BCE. Shops, promenades, palaces, temples, sundials, hovels, huts, villas, insulae, pavillions, streets, roads, watchtowers, gates and fortification walls, all form part of the urban fabric which is true of most ancient cities as well.
Although the religious landscape was dominated by the Buddhist faith, there has is nonetheless ample evidence of other faiths intermingling and thriving in the social fabric such as Jainism , Zoroastrianism and early Hinduism amongst the various other cults. The temple at Jandial is said to be Zoroastrian in nature whereas a Jain temple and a temple of the Sun is in evidence on the main street of Sirkap city along with various stupas.
This shows the degree of intermixing of cultures in the region which we can deduce from the archaeological remains. Conclusion As we can see, daily life in the cities of Gandhara was very diverse and due to its location at a crossroads near to the Indus River, it constantly saw invaders, traders, pilgrims, monks and every other type of traveller cross through its lands.
Westwards from India or Eastwards from Persia, the route through the region of Gandhara made it the center of every traveller's route. However, Rigvedic texts, and modern research, suggest that the path of the Sarasvati River was very different.
It ended in the ocean at Kachchh in modern Gujrat and not at Prayag. The Gandharan city of Taxila was an important Buddhist and Hindu centre of learning from the 5th century BC  to the 2nd century. Gandhara is mentioned in the Hindu epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana , as a western kingdom. During Ramayana time King Nagnajit 1 who was a contemporary of Lord Rama was defeated and killed by Rama's brother Bharata and Bharata's 1st son Taksha established Takshasila Taxila in Gandhara Kingdom on the banks of river Sindhu and Pushkara established Pushkaravati or Purushapura Pushkar in Gandharva tribe on the banks of river Saraswati after defeating and killing its king Sailusha who was the father-in-law of Vibhishana.
In Dvapara Yuga, Gandhara prince Shakuni was the root of all the conspiracies of Duryodhana against the Pandavas , which finally resulted in the Kurukshetra War. Shakuni's sister was the wife of the Kuru king Dhritarashtra and was known as Gandhari.
Gandhara was in modern Pakistan. Takshasila was founded by Raghava Rama 's brother Bharata. Bharata's descendants ruled this kingdom afterwards. During epic period it was ruled by Shakuni's father Suvala, Shakuni and Shakuni's son. Arjuna defeated Shakuni's son during his post-war military campaign for Yudhishthira 's Aswamedha Yagna. Athens coin c. This coin is the earliest known example of its type to be found so far east.
These several tribes and principalities fought against one another to such an extent that the Indus Valley no longer had one powerful Vedic tribal kingdom to defend against outsiders and to wield the warring tribes into one organized kingdom. The area was wealthy and fertile, yet infighting led misery and despair. King Pushkarasakti of Gandhara was engaged in power struggles against his local rivals and as such the Khyber Pass remained poorly defended.
King Darius I of the Achaemenid Empire took advantage of the opportunity and planned for an invasion.
The Indus Valley was fabled in Persia for its gold and fertile soil and conquering it had been a major objective of his predecessor Cyrus The Great. However, he is known to have campaigned beyond Makran in the regions of Kalat , Khuzdar , Panjgur and lost most of his army in the Gedrosian Desert speculated today as the Kharan Desert.
Xerxes I tomb, Gandharian soldier, c. Under Persian rule, a system of centralized administration, with a bureaucratic system, was introduced into the Indus Valley for the first time. Provinces or "satrapy" were established with provincial capitals: Gandhara satrapy, established BC with its capital at Pushkalavati Charsadda. During Achaemenid rule, the Kharosthi alphabet, derived from the one used for Aramaic the official language of Achaemenids , developed here and remained the national script of Gandhara until AD.
King Pushkarasakti was engaged in power struggles against his local rivals. The Achaemenids under Darius penetrated to the region in BC and annexed other parts of modern-day Punjab, Pakistan west to the Indus river and Sindh.
By about BC the Persian hold on the region had weakened. Many small kingdoms sprang up in Gandhara. The expeditions of Alexander were recorded by his court historians and by Arrian around AD in his Anabasis Alexandri and by other chroniclers many centuries after the event. Sir Mortimer Wheeler conducted some excavations there in , and identified various Achaemenid remains. Obverse: Alexander being crowned by Nike. Reverse: Alexander attacking king Porus on his elephant.
British Museum. In the winter of BC, Alexander invited all the chieftains in the remaining five Achaemenid satraps to submit to his authority. Ambhi , then ruler of Taxila in the former Hindush satrapy complied, but the remaining tribes and clans in the former satraps of Gandhara, Arachosia, Sattagydia and Gedrosia rejected Alexander's offer. The first tribe they encountered were the Aspasioi tribe of the Kunar Valley , who initiated a fierce battle against Alexander, in which he himself was wounded in the shoulder by a dart.
However, the Aspasioi eventually lost and 40, people were enslaved. The Assakenoi fought bravely and offered stubborn resistance to Alexander and his army in the cities of Ora, Bazira Barikot and Massaga. So enraged was Alexander about the resistance put up by the Assakenoi that he killed the entire population of Massaga and reduced its buildings to rubble.
A similar slaughter then followed at Ora,  another stronghold of the Assakenoi. What is relevant is that these two regions developed two distinctly different styles of sculpture. While Mathura art developed from local Indian artistic traditions, Gandharan sculptures were heavily influenced by the artistic traditions of the Hellenistic world, most probably as a result of Alexander the Great's colony in Bactria western Afghanistan.
Mathura school sculptures often share iconographic features with their Kushan-period counterparts in the northwest. But for the most part, they reveal a purely Indic stylistic heritage that must have evolved independently Huntington The Gandharan style of sculpture, on the other hand, combines an intriguing blend of Western classical and Indian influences. Gandhara was a region in the northwest of ancient India, known for its Greco-Buddhist school of sculpture. Gandhara corresponded to the modern Peshawar valley, but its more popular meaning today encompasses large portions of northern Pakistan and adjoining northeastern Afghanistan.
Gandhara's regional location was vital to this Hellenistic development. Gandhara was located just east of the famous Khyber Pass, comprising what is now north-western Pakistan. The art of the Roman Empire was probably brought to Gandhara because much of the Mediterranean trade with Asia was channeled through such mountain passes. This regions sculpture had some chief characteristics, especially its degree of realism inherited from its Greek antecedents in the area combined with ideals of its own native tradition.
The stance of the figures, the style of the draperies, and even the proportions of the idealized features of the heads with their straight noses, oval eyebrows and tranquil expressions owe much to Greek prototypes Penny We can observe the Greco-Roman influence on the sculpture of Gandharan art by observing the Gandharan Bodhisattva at the Art Institute.
As a beginning student in Buddhist Art, the stylistic differences in this sculpture are quite obvious. After conducting research on Gandharan sculptures, I found that the sense of volume conveyed in the outline of the Buddhas garment is characteristic of Gandhara sculptures.Chandragupta Maurya , the founder of the Mauryan dynasty, is said to have lived in Taxila when Alexander captured the city. Kabul Shahi[ edit ] Sharing of the Buddha 's relics, above a Gandhara fortified city. A considerable accession of power was granted him after the death of Philip son of Machatas ; and he was allowed to retain his authority at the death of Alexander himself BC , as well as in the subsequent partition of the provinces at Triparadisus , BC. According to the essay The Materials of Sculpture, Burden is a metamorphic rock of violent character and dark silvery art analysis, sometimes tending to blue or bleed. art It probably stood on a title whose front was cast with a scene of worship. The sew was on the life story of the Language and each essay of sample literature research paper has something to say about the weak of this personage. The Gandhara title of the seated Buddha was less problematic.
The riches of Gandhara, although well known to treasure hunters for centuries, would not be discovered again for over years until the era of British Colonial rule in the Indian Subcontinent, where the artistic traditions of this lost civilization were rediscovered and consequently researched and bought to light in the late 19th and throughout the 20th centuries CE, the study of which continues to this day. This regions sculpture had some chief characteristics, especially its degree of realism inherited from its Greek antecedents in the area combined with ideals of its own native tradition. From then on a large number of Buddhist statues were discovered in the Peshawar valley. Gandhara was one of sixteen mahajanapadas of ancient India. It really took flight during the Kushan era and especially that of the King Kanishka during the 1st Century CE who deified the Buddha and arguably for the first time introduced the Buddha image which went on to become so prolific as to define the entire Gandharan culture. Quick succession of rule by the Sassanids, Kidarites or little Kushans and finally the White Huns following the ebbing of Kushan rule led to day to day religious, trade and social activity coming to a standstill.
He ruled from Taxila and later from Sagala Sialkot. Its rich fields and fruitful gardens, together with the canal which watered them the course of which is still partially traceable in the western part of the plain , had all disappeared. In Dvapara Yuga, Gandhara prince Shakuni was the root of all the conspiracies of Duryodhana against the Pandavas , which finally resulted in the Kurukshetra War. In early Buddhist art, the Buddha was merely symbolized by a wheel, a bodhi tree, or a stupa.
Gandhara was acquired from the Greeks by Chandragupta Maurya. This paper will briefly discuss the Mathura region and will primarily focus on the styles and attributes of sculptures from the Gandharan region. This seemed to be some of the influences via Alexander the Greats conquering pathways of trade. Supposedly using Gandhara and Vahika as his base, Chandragupta led a rebellion against the Magadha Empire and ascended the throne at Pataliputra in BC. More so, Gandharan art recreates these scenes in such detail that architectural elements and items of everyday use such as beds and vases etc.
Based on various Muslim records it is estimated this occurred in Because of the dynasty's openness to foreign influences, and renewed exchanges with Indian culture due to the numerous travels of Chinese Buddhist monks to India, Tang dynasty Buddhist sculpture assumed a rather classical form, inspired by the Indian art of the Gupta period. The change in religious character which was the basis of all social life led to a decline in the prosperity of the Gandhara region as a whole. There is much debate in which region these first images appeared, and such discussion is not relevant to my thesis.
Therefore, it is reasonable to say that Indias importance for Buddhism and its art is mainly its historical influence.
These images stood against walls, in courts, inside niches and chapels and stuccos adorned the walls of the stupa courts and monasteries. Korean artisans were highly selective of the styles they incorporated and combined different regional styles together to create a specific Korean Buddhist art style.
Chinese records provided locations and site plans for Buddhist shrines. The stories of these slaughters reached numerous Assakenians, who began fleeing to Aornos, a hill-fort located between Shangla and Kohistan. Alexander was emboldened to divide his forces, and Ambhi assisted Hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it bends at Hund Fox , supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship and the most liberal hospitality. Similar geographical characteristics are found at site of Prang in Kashmir and at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna , where the sacred city of Prayag is situated, west of Benares. This structure was destroyed and rebuilt many times until it was finally destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in the 11th century. Connected as they were with the then-unpopular school of Chan Buddhism, their paintings were discarded and ignored.
And in the 1st century ce, rulers of the Kushan empire, which included Gandhara, maintained contacts with Rome. In contrast, the sculptors were more interested in registering inner feeling and spiritual ecstasy, not through dramatic distortions but by a subtle and serene expressiveness Editorial Review This Article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication. Gandharas are included in the Uttarapatha division of Puranic and Buddhistic traditions. However, there are no contemporary Indian records of Chandragupta Maurya and almost all that is known is based on the diaries of Megasthenes , the ambassador of Seleucus at Pataliputra, as recorded by Arrian in his Indika.
After the fall of the Sassanid Empire to the Arabs in , today's Afghanistan region and Gandhara came under pressure from Muslims. The Kushan period is the period in which the first human images of the Buddha appeared. However, this expansion of Gandhara kingdom coincided with the rise of the powerful Ghaznavid Empire under Sabuktigin. Anandapala , a son of Jayapala, moved his capital near Nandana in the Salt Range. Korean artisans were highly selective of the styles they incorporated and combined different regional styles together to create a specific Korean Buddhist art style. The main city at Taxila was again refounded at another site and the new name Sirsukh given to it.
Tang China was the cross roads of East, Central, and South Asia and so the Buddhist art of this time period exhibit the so-called international style. A similar slaughter then followed at Ora,  another stronghold of the Assakenoi. It resembled a large military base, with a wall 5 km long and no less than 6 metres thick. However, Rigvedic texts, and modern research, suggest that the path of the Sarasvati River was very different.
The Stupas were built mainly for the reverence of the remains of Buddhist masters and the most important ones held the remains of the Buddha himself. Peshawar Valley and Taxila are littered with ruins of stupas and monasteries of this period. And in the 1st century ce, rulers of the Kushan empire, which included Gandhara, maintained contacts with Rome.