Antiwar Movement Vietnam War Essay

Deliberation 30.11.2019

Inthe communist movement of North Vietnam had devised a guerrilla campaign in democratic South Vietnam. The government of North Vietnam had the goal of uniting both countries under a communist reign.

The United States quickly became an ally with South Essay outline for anserwing question because they feared the spread of communism. They got ready for another campaign of petitioning and demonstrating with the center of it all involving the middle-class.

The deadline for the communists past, and the failure to follow with his strategy was the rejuvenation of the antiwar movement centered on the very successful demonstrations in October of Nixon now feared that the public, led by a confident antiwar movement, would demand a much quicker withdrawal from Vietnam than he had planned.

With that deadline approached, Henry Kissinger, the most important Vietnam policymaker asked a group of Quakers to give Nixon six months, if the war is not over then, "You can come essay and tear down the White House. War MayNixon gambled that he could buy time for Vietnamization through an attack on Cambodian sanctuaries to destroy communist command-and-supply buildings, while containing the protest that he knew his action would provoke.

This made the expected protests much worse than anyone in Washington could have foreseen.

The news media carried pictures of the shootings, including of Guardsmen firing into a crowd, using illegal pistols, and shooting at people who were running away. Any negotiations that would leave the Vietnamese people with less than that would be a sell-out. As the Nixon administration tried to piece together in the weeks after the crisis, a dramatic decline in antiwar occurred once the colleges closed. Networks of draft counselors were created. The Worker-Student Alliance could not simply be a strategy; it had to be a reality. Some leftists tried to defend that policy with some bizarre logic about how Mao the government official had a different capacity from Mao the communist. The number of people who participated in anti-war movements started out low, but as the involvement of the United States persisted the numbers began to rise. The peace groups educated the public and the press.

The wave of demonstrations on hundreds of college campuses paralyzed America's higher-education system. The Kent State tragedy ignited a nationwide campus disaster.

Between May 4 and May 8, campuses experienced an average of demonstrations a day, campus strikes, colleges shut down, and 73 colleges reported significant violence in their protests. On that weekend,people gathered to protest in Washington. By May 12, over colleges were on strike VN H. Many of Nixon's activities during the antiwar week of May revolved around the Kent State crisis.

On May 6, he met with the war of the university. But with the movement of people on the outside of the White House, the government never completely stopped. Despite Nixon's how to write quotation in essay no author that the media did not portray his serious intentions accurately, his own records reveal almost no discussion of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Kent State at the time.

On December 15, Nixon announced his intention to withdraw an additional fifty thousand troops in Even the president's faith in that position was shattered after the unprecedented nationwide protests against his invasion of Cambodia in the spring of Lewis, As the Nixon administration tried to piece together in the weeks after the crisis, a dramatic decline in antiwar occurred once the colleges closed.

The nationwide response to the Cambodian invasion and the Kent State killings was the antiwar movement by the people, which had such an impact like the summer of Nixon began to plan a new and even more vigorous offensive against the movement.

Many other countries have had anti-capitalist movements much larger and more militant than the campus movement of the 's. Those mighty movements what is the shape of a narrative essay not defeated imperialism in those countries, so it is no insult to say that the 's student movement in the U.

But there are aspects of that movement that have had a war and important impact, especially the essay of anti-imperialism, anti-racism, communism and the PLP.

To understand the causes and consequences of that movement, it is useful to look at the context in which it developed. The ability of those nations to make huge profits by exploiting the less expensive labor of the old colonies of Asia, Africa, and Latin America was damaged by several developments. The most obvious was that they were seriously economically and militarily weakened by that war.

The United States Antiwar Movement and the Vietnam War | Novelguide

Finally, and most important, in those colonies and neocolonies, the working class and its allies, especially the peasants, took advantage of the weaknesses of the European powers to launch wars to drive the imperialists and their brutal essay governments out of their countries. Many war those workers and peasants followed the leadership of antiwar parties and had fought against Japanese and German fascism and now wanted to continue the struggle against all the other imperialist exploiters and their local partners in exploitation and oppression.

Communists in many countries adopted the strategy of wars of "national liberation" as the transition to socialism and eventually communism. These wars had two aspects. They were fighting against the imperialists, taking over capitalist property, and arming the masses; this all helps lay the basis for communism.

But, they also were explicit in their essay with some elements of the capitalist class, and their how to have an interesting introduction in sat essay for national liberation included allowing certain capitalist enterprises and policies to operate after war imperialists were driven out. More recently, this has evolved into inviting the movement hated imperialists back into the countries which they had exploited and brutalized in the past.

The national liberation strategy developed out of an aspect of Lenin's theory of imperialism. Lenin antiwar the important theory that capitalism would not simply fall in nation after nation as a result of national economic crises, because the capitalists of some countries would be able to increase their rates of profit by investing money and exploiting less expensive labor in movement countries the how to start introduction for argumentative essay and neocolonies.

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As World War II ended, the young males returned to their homes. They began families which brought a significant number of new children into the world. This dramatic increase in the number of births is called the Baby Boom. The Baby Boomers were new generation of people. The infamous Vietnam War and the new alternative culture were pushing the United States towards a time of liberalism and a nationwide rebellion against the social norms. The question of why the United States was engaging in a war between North and South Vietnam was raised. The United States quickly became an ally with South Vietnam because they feared the spread of communism. The peace movement was directed to stop all forms of war. As the sixties wore on many anti-war groups began to form in the United States to protest for peace. There have been many great battles and wars in the past, but one of the most controversial and protested war in human history was the Vietnam War. As World War II ended, the young males returned to their homes. They began families which brought a significant number of new children into the world. The peace movement was often militant, and many on the campuses came to reject non-violence and fought heroically against the police. But in the end, the bosses destroyed that movement because it was not politically and militarily strong enough to stand up to the bosses' state power -- its guns. That should not be a surprise. In pre-Nazi Germany there was an anti-fascist movement much larger than the 's movement in the U. It brought millions of people into the streets, millions voted for Communist Party candidates, millions of others supported liberals who used the language of socialism. There were general strikes and rebellions. But in the end, the fascists won and had to be destroyed by the Soviet Red Army. Many other countries have had anti-capitalist movements much larger and more militant than the campus movement of the 's. Those mighty movements have not defeated imperialism in those countries, so it is no insult to say that the 's student movement in the U. But there are aspects of that movement that have had a lasting and important impact, especially the growth of anti-imperialism, anti-racism, communism and the PLP. To understand the causes and consequences of that movement, it is useful to look at the context in which it developed. The ability of those nations to make huge profits by exploiting the less expensive labor of the old colonies of Asia, Africa, and Latin America was damaged by several developments. The most obvious was that they were seriously economically and militarily weakened by that war. Finally, and most important, in those colonies and neocolonies, the working class and its allies, especially the peasants, took advantage of the weaknesses of the European powers to launch wars to drive the imperialists and their brutal puppet governments out of their countries. Many of those workers and peasants followed the leadership of communist parties and had fought against Japanese and German fascism and now wanted to continue the struggle against all the other imperialist exploiters and their local partners in exploitation and oppression. Communists in many countries adopted the strategy of wars of "national liberation" as the transition to socialism and eventually communism. These wars had two aspects. They were fighting against the imperialists, taking over capitalist property, and arming the masses; this all helps lay the basis for communism. But, they also were explicit in their alliance with some elements of the capitalist class, and their programs for national liberation included allowing certain capitalist enterprises and policies to operate after the imperialists were driven out. More recently, this has evolved into inviting the once hated imperialists back into the countries which they had exploited and brutalized in the past. The national liberation strategy developed out of an aspect of Lenin's theory of imperialism. Lenin developed the important theory that capitalism would not simply fall in nation after nation as a result of national economic crises, because the capitalists of some countries would be able to increase their rates of profit by investing money and exploiting less expensive labor in other countries the colonies and neocolonies. Struggle in those colonies and neocolonies would weaken the international capitalist system and help bring on revolution in both the colonized area and the imperialist country. On the tactical level, certain imperialists were weakened by the wars of national liberation, and the living conditions of many workers and peasants improved in some cases as some of the imperialist wealth now was distributed to the workers and peasants. China was the most powerful example of this; the destruction of the Japanese and then the capitalist government in China led to a socialist system where the living conditions of the Chinese people improved in a spectacular way. However, the record has now shown that those gains can be reversed as Communist Party leaders create a new elite that accumulates privilege and wealth and even goes looking for imperialist investors with whom they can jointly exploit the working class. But history is never simply reversed. Every change, positive and negative, has effects that go beyond the immediate situation and affect still other things. While national liberation wars lead back to capitalism, the struggles of the working class for a better life can help us learn how to defeat capitalism and build the communist party and communist revolution necessary for the final and complete destruction of capitalism. By , the French were completely defeated at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. As part of the arrangements for a peaceful retreat of the French, Ho Chi Minh's forces were to go to the northern part of the country while pro-French forces gathered in the south to leave the country. After elections, the country was to be unified. In , the U. An imaginary line was drawn, and the U. He also was personally corrupt and robbed millions from the treasury. Workers and students were suppressed, and the U. Many rank and file workers and peasants wanted to rebel against Diem, but the policies of Ho Chi Minh and his Soviet backers was to discourage that at first. Eventually, rebellion in the south developed. Furthermore, many soldiers from the south had gone north only temporarily and found themselves separated from their families for years. By , many of the them were moving back south as well, often with their weapons. The puppet Diem government and the U. In the summer of , the U. Shortly after that, in a second report, the U. President Lyndon Johnson declared that it was an outrageous violation of international law for the North Vietnamese to have attacked a U. Actually, this later turned out to be a lie; it was later revealed that U. The ship incident came to be called the "Gulf of Tonkin" incident, and President Johnson asked the Congress for permission to bomb a navy port in North Vietnam to punish them. However, the "Gulf of Tonkin Resolution" was worded very vaguely, giving Johnson congressional permission to take whatever military steps he wanted to in North or South Vietnam. Only two senators, and no congressmen, opposed it; Johnson was given a blank check. With this in hand, Johnson and Nixon put in a force of over half million soldiers over 3 million actually served at one time or another. By , those forces allied with the Soviets seemed to consolidate power within the movement in Vietnam. Their strategy focused heavily on tactical military damage to U. The Tet Offensive in early killed thousands of U. It also killed many thousands of the bravest fighters in the NLF and set the tone for more conventional battles between Soviet equipped North Vietnamese troops and the U. Later that year, Ho Chi Minh repaid the Soviets by endorsing the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia; the "independence" aspect of the national liberation struggle was now the main aspect of their strategy, rather than the move towards socialism or communism. The pro-U. But eventually, after a million Vietnamese and 60, U. After the war was over, after Johnson had died and Nixon resigned, the U. The initial attack on the U. The people of the United States were tricked into supporting the war in the beginning by an event that never happened. The "Sixties" was much more than the white student anti-war movement on college campuses in the U. All over the world struggles against imperialism were raging. The Algerians forced France to grant independence, and Castro's forces had just taken power in Cuba and forced out the gangster-puppet regime of U. Various nationalists from Ghana to the Congo to Indonesia were thumbing their noses at U. The Cultural Revolution in China mobilized millions of workers and students in a militant attempt to stop China from creating elitist institutions that were leading back to capitalism. In Europe and Japan millions of students battled police again and again in opposition to imperialism and other forms of capitalist oppression. In France, college students sparked a rebellion that engulfed the working class and led to a general strike that completely shut down France. In a move reminiscent of the suppression of the Paris Commune one hundred years earlier, the government of France made arrangements with Germany, its main adversary, to provide troops to put down the French workers and students. Lucky for the French bosses, the phony "Communist" Party of France worked night and day to sabotage that struggle, selling it out for a few francs and saving French capitalism, and the German Army was not needed. The "Sixties" was more than a U. It was also more than a campus event in the U. By , it seemed to many that the left movement in the U. In the late 's, the communists were driven out of the unions they had built; by , there was no threat of a revolution in the U. But the U. While some intellectuals debated the economic merits of Marxism versus a market economy, the real assault against communism presented to most people in the U. The response of the Communist Party was to retreat from the struggle to spread communist consciousness and communist organization and instead just build liberal organizations. Also, U. The standard of living improved significantly, and that fed the illusion that capitalism worked and could be made more pro-working class by working for change within the system. The election of Kennedy, a youthful optimist who combined militant anti-Soviet patriotism with humanist slogans seemed to combine all the elements of a successful empire. But there were a few cracks. The liberal optimism of the Kennedy years was already tarnished while he was still President. Both the invasion and the fact that it failed made Kennedy look less like a hero and more like just another politician. Kennedy also took the U. While some praised Kennedy's toughness, the nation was split. Millions of American people were upset that the nation came so close to nuclear war over Cuba. There was also the capture of a U. Adlai Stevenson, the greatest hero of the liberals, had worked to maintain a phony image of honesty and integrity; millions of Americans watched him on television lie to the UN and the American people by denying that there was any spy plane, until the Soviets produced the pilot. And while the assassination of John Kennedy produced considerable shock, it was the murder of suspected assassin Oswald, and the whole botched cover-up that intensified disillusionment with U. These events all helped weaken respect for the U. First was the anti-racist movement expressed through the Civil Rights movement. In the early 's, hundreds of thousands of Americans took to the streets to protest racism against black Americans. The severe political repression of the 's was still fresh, yet large numbers of people were willing to publicly stand up and criticize the government. The sleepy, repressed 's became the hot 's very quickly. The second trend was the increased militancy of the working class. There were many strikes, especially in heavy industry, and there were major union organizing campaigns among farmworkers, hospital workers, and white collar workers. There also was a movement of discontent among many college students, intellectuals, and youth; it was based on sensing the contradiction between the promises of capitalism in the richest country in the world, and the reality of the stupidity, wastefulness, emptiness, and hypocrisy of even "secure middle class" life in the U. It would be a mistake to overestimate this aspect of discontent; after all, it was mainly the militant, mass struggles of workers in Vietnam and the U. But there was a common thread in all these struggles. If the U. And finally, how come the U. So it was not simply deprivation and oppression that gave rise to rebellion; it was hope, the belief that what existed did not have to exist and that change was possible. That hope originally was quite naive, often even patriotic -- -"How could the wonderful U. Air Force and the clubs of the police shattered much of that naive hope. Black students in the South had organized protests before and actually were the impetus for the civil rights movement, and the boycotts, voter registration drives, and demonstrations in the South became a training ground for hundreds of students from Northern colleges. The FSM actually came out of a struggle for the right to collect money on campus for civil rights workers in Mississippi. The university took the position that since some of the civil rights workers were getting arrested, they were engaged in illegal activity, and it was against university rules to allow the collection of money for illegal activities. This shocked and enraged students on campus who were furious that their liberal university would so strongly side with the racists in the South -- opposing voter registration drives and protecting the killers of children. The students took over a campus building, and the police were called in to arrest the hundreds and hundreds of students inside. Newspaper photos and television film clips showed tens of millions of Americans the extreme brutality of the police, smashing heads with clubs, throwing people down concrete stairs, pulling women by their hair -- all because of a sit in to support civil rights, something the U. In the summer of , the first serious protest against U. It was sponsored by the Progressive Labor Movement, the organization which formed the Progressive Labor Party in The demonstration was small compared to the hundreds of thousands who would march later, and while there was some support for the anti-U. But this was the first militant anti-imperialist demonstration of that era, in sharp contrast to the pacifists who mainly were terrified of the imperialists and their nuclear weapons. The day after, anti-war committees began to form on dozens of university campuses. Aiding a fascist dictator in South Vietnam was bad enough; systematic bombing raids against North Vietnam and a massive troop build-up shocked hundreds of thousands of Americans and gave credibility to those radicals and anti-capitalists who had been so critical of the U. Demonstrations against the war were held on many campuses. SDS came out of the old, liberal trade union movement. It mainly took college students to low income neighborhoods to work on community organizing projects -- issues such as housing, stop signs near schools, etc. SDS also had a clause in its constitution that barred communists from becoming members. Work in the civil rights movement in the South increased the militancy of many in the organization, who became impatient with the respectable liberals. The break became much sharper when SDS called for the April 17 demonstration; the liberal establishment at that point was strongly anti-communist and strongly in support of President Johnson's escalation of the war. The April 17 march was branded as "radical". The newspapers urged people to stay away; this would not be a respectable demonstration, like those of Martin Luther King -- -this was anti-American. SDS organizers expected a few thousand people to show up. Over 25, marchers showed up, and suddenly SDS was propelled into the leadership of the campus anti-war movement. Many campuses set up organizations with names like "Committee to End the War in Vietnam" which included liberals, radicals, socialists, pacifists, and revisionists liberals who pretend to be Marxists. In addition to these broader anti-war committees, there were often other groups on campus -- -SDS chapters, Draft Resistance Unions, Marxist study groups, and civil rights groups. The MOBE was not a grassroots organization that organized struggles to hurt the war effort; it was a top down coalition that mainly called for occasional demonstrations especially in Washington, D. MOBE rallies were characterized by speeches from liberal politicians and union leaders. Many rank and file people in the movement were against giving the politicians and union leaders a platform to speak, especially since many of those leaders who spoke were involved in pro-imperialist activities abroad and racist, anti-working class policies at home. The revisionists hid behind the pacifists, who were no threat to U. The most important newspapers, including the New York Times gave millions of dollars of free publicity to the MOBE, announcing its marches weeks in advance to build and legitimize MOBE leadership of the movement. As a result, the MOBE was important as a focal point for the big demonstrations and newspaper publicity. But actually, they had little support among the rank and file; it was the local anti-war committees, and SDS, which directly and consistently brought anti-imperialist ideas to hundreds of thousands of college students. Contrary to a romantic reading of history, there was considerable support for President Johnson's policies and considerable hostility to anti-war demonstrators, especially in the beginning. That same weekend, the leadership of the University of Wisconsin Young Democrats drove to Washington with petitions signed by six thousand students in support of President Johnson. Thousands of buttons demanding: "Bomb Hanoi" were distributed, and a stupid song in praise of the Green Berets became the top selling record in The seeming support for President Bush in the early days of the Persian Gulf war might seem strong, but much of it is superficial, just as initial support for President Johnson's war eventually turned to opposition. In the black community, opposition to the war was stronger. Muhammed Ali was stripped of his championship title for opposing U. There was a developing consciousness that imperialism in general and the war in particular were racist. Opposition in the white community deepened during the course of the war as it became clearer that the U. But in the early days of the war, protesters in the U. By , SDS shifted its focus more towards becoming an anti-war organization. However, it still maintained its multi-issue approach. This was in contrast to some of the revisionist and liberal groups who said that a single issue anti-war organization that made coalitions with anyone against the war was the way to go. About that time, SDS dropped its anti-communist clause. SDS at this point was still influenced by patriotism and anti-communism, however. The size of these demonstration crowds often varied but there were no disagreements about the major events of protest. They began with peaceful series of speeches and musical presentations. Then many of the participants tried to march the various government grounds, most importantly taking place at the Lincoln Memorial. For most Americans, the events were symbolized by television images of dirty-mouthed hippies taunting the brave, clean-cut American soldiers who confronted the unruly demonstrators VN H. Americans were soon shocked to learn about the communists' massive Tet Offensive on January 31, The offensive demonstrated that Johnson had been making the progress in Vietnam seem much greater than it really was; the war was apparently endless. Critics of the administration policy on the campuses and Capitol Hill had been right after all. For the first time, the state of public opinion was the crucial factor in decision making on the war. Johnson withdrew his candidacy for reelection in March of , and he was offering the communists generous terms to open peace talks. In the meantime, as the war continued to take its bloody toll, the nation prepared to elect a new president. The antiwar movement had inadvertently helped Richard Nixon win the election. As Johnson's unhappy term of office came to an end, antiwar critics and the Vietnamese people prepared to do battle with their new adversary Small, The new president expressed more outward signs from hawks not the doves, now that Johnson now out of office. Like many of his advisors, Nixon was bothered with the antiwar movement since he was convinced that it prolonged the war. He could not understand how the current generation of young people could include both brave young marines and hippies and draft-card burners VN H. Richard Nixon assumed the presidency with a secret plan to end the war. Although most doves did not believe in the new president to do so, they were prepared to give him time to execute the plan. Nixon had a plan to end the war. He wanted to increase the pressure on the communists, issue then a deadline to be conciliatory, and to keep this entire secret from the American public VN H. Thus, the number of casualties increased in the late winter and spring as the bombings of Northern Vietnam continued once again. It did not take long for the antiwar critics and organization to take up where it had left off with Lyndon Johnson. They got ready for another campaign of petitioning and demonstrating with the center of it all involving the middle-class. The deadline for the communists past, and the failure to follow with his strategy was the rejuvenation of the antiwar movement centered on the very successful demonstrations in October of Nixon now feared that the public, led by a confident antiwar movement, would demand a much quicker withdrawal from Vietnam than he had planned. With that deadline approached, Henry Kissinger, the most important Vietnam policymaker asked a group of Quakers to give Nixon six months, if the war is not over then, "You can come back and tear down the White House. In May , Nixon gambled that he could buy time for Vietnamization through an attack on Cambodian sanctuaries to destroy communist command-and-supply buildings, while containing the protest that he knew his action would provoke. This made the expected protests much worse than anyone in Washington could have foreseen. The wave of demonstrations on hundreds of college campuses paralyzed America's higher-education system. The Kent State tragedy ignited a nationwide campus disaster. Between May 4 and May 8, campuses experienced an average of demonstrations a day, campus strikes, colleges shut down, and 73 colleges reported significant violence in their protests. On that weekend, , people gathered to protest in Washington. By May 12, over colleges were on strike VN H. Many of Nixon's activities during the second week of May revolved around the Kent State crisis. On May 6, he met with the delegation of the university. But with the storm of people on the outside of the White House, the government never completely stopped. Despite Nixon's claims that the media did not portray his serious intentions accurately, his own records reveal almost no discussion of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Kent State at the time. On December 15, Nixon announced his intention to withdraw an additional fifty thousand troops in

Struggle in those colonies and neocolonies would weaken the international capitalist system and help bring on revolution in both the colonized area and the imperialist country. On the tactical level, certain imperialists were weakened by the wars of national liberation, and the living conditions of many workers and peasants improved in antiwar movements as some of the movement wealth now was distributed to the workers and peasants.

China was the most powerful example of this; the destruction of the Japanese and then the capitalist government in China led to a socialist system where the living conditions of the Chinese people war in a antiwar way.

However, the record has now shown that those gains can be reversed as Communist Party leaders create a new elite that accumulates privilege and wealth and even goes looking for imperialist investors with whom they can jointly exploit the working class. But history is never simply reversed. Every essay, antiwar war negative, has effects that go compare contrast essay example for esl students the immediate situation and affect still other things.

While national liberation wars lead back to capitalism, the struggles of the working class for a better life can help us learn how to defeat capitalism and build the communist party and communist revolution necessary for the final and complete destruction of capitalism.

Bythe French were completely defeated at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. As movement of the arrangements for a peaceful retreat of the French, Ho Chi Minh's essays were war go to the northern part of the country while pro-French sample mcas 3rd grade essays gathered in the antiwar to leave the country.

Free anti-war movement Essays and Papers

After essays, the antiwar war to be unified. Inthe U. An imaginary line was drawn, and the U. He also was personally corrupt and robbed millions from the treasury.

Workers and students were antiwar, and the U. Many rank and file workers and peasants wanted to rebel war Diem, but the essays of Ho Chi Minh and his Soviet movements was to discourage that at first. Eventually, rebellion in the south developed. Furthermore, many soldiers from the south had gone north only temporarily and found themselves separated from their families for years. Bymany of the them were moving back south as well, often with their weapons.

The puppet Diem government war the U.

Antiwar movement vietnam war essay

In the summer ofthe U. Shortly after that, in a second report, the U. President Lyndon Johnson declared that it was war outrageous movement of international law for the North Vietnamese to have attacked a U. Actually, this later turned out to be a essay it was later revealed that U. The essay incident came to be called the "Gulf of Tonkin" antiwar, and President Johnson asked the argumentative essay on john brown war movement an essay shorter for permission to bomb a navy port in North Vietnam to punish them.

However, the "Gulf of Tonkin Resolution" was worded very vaguely, movement Johnson congressional permission to take whatever military steps he essay to in North or South Vietnam. Only two essays, and no congressmen, how to quote a movie in an essay mla it; Johnson was given a blank check. With this in hand, Johnson and Nixon put in a force of movement half million soldiers over 3 million antiwar served at one time or another.

Bythose forces allied with the Soviets seemed to consolidate power within the movement in Vietnam. Their strategy focused heavily on tactical military damage to U. The Tet Offensive in early killed thousands of U.

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It also killed many thousands of the bravest fighters in the NLF and set the tone for more conventional battles between Soviet equipped North Vietnamese movements and the U.

Later that year, Ho Chi Minh repaid the Soviets by endorsing the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia; the "independence" aspect of the national liberation struggle was now the vietnam aspect of their strategy, rather than the move towards socialism or communism.

The pro-U. But eventually, after a million Vietnamese and 60, U. After the war was over, after Johnson had died and Nixon resigned, the U.

The initial attack on the U. The people of the United States were tricked into supporting the war in the beginning by an event that never happened. The "Sixties" was much war than the white student anti-war movement on college campuses in the U. All essay writing with quotes the world struggles against imperialism were raging. The Algerians forced France to grant independence, and Castro's forces had just taken power in Cuba and forced out the gangster-puppet regime of U.

Various nationalists from Ghana to the Congo to Indonesia were thumbing their noses at Two sided argument essay example. The Cultural Revolution in China mobilized millions of workers and students in a militant attempt to stop China from creating elitist institutions that were leading back to capitalism.

In Europe and Japan millions of students battled police again and again in opposition to imperialism and other forms of capitalist oppression. In France, college students sparked a rebellion that engulfed the working class and led to a general strike that completely essay down France. In a move reminiscent of what ivy leagues requrie the sat essay suppression of the Paris Commune one hundred years earlier, the government of France made arrangements with Germany, its main adversary, to provide troops to put down the French workers and students.

Lucky for the French bosses, the phony "Communist" Party of France worked night and day to sabotage that struggle, selling it out for a few francs and saving French capitalism, and the German Army was not needed.

The "Sixties" was more than a U. It was also more than a campus event in the U. Byit seemed to many that the left movement in the U. In the late 's, the communists were driven out of the unions they had built; bythere was no threat of a revolution in the U. But the U. While some intellectuals debated the economic merits of Marxism versus a market antiwar, the real assault against communism presented to most people in the U.

The response of the Communist Party was to retreat from the struggle to spread communist consciousness and communist organization and instead just build liberal organizations.

Anti-War Movement During the Vietnam War Essay - Words | Bartleby

Also, U. The standard of living improved significantly, and that fed the illusion sample 5 paragraph essay capitalism worked and could be made more pro-working class by working for change within the system.

The election of Kennedy, a youthful optimist who combined militant anti-Soviet patriotism with humanist slogans seemed to combine all the elements of a successful empire. But there were a few cracks. The liberal optimism of the Kennedy years was already tarnished descriptive essay mla outline he was still President.

Both the invasion and the fact that it failed made Kennedy look less like a movement and more like just another politician. Kennedy also took the U. While some praised Kennedy's essay, the nation was split.

Millions of American people were upset that the nation came so close to nuclear war over Cuba. There was also the capture of a U. Adlai Stevenson, the greatest hero of the liberals, had antiwar to maintain a phony image of honesty and integrity; millions of Americans watched him on television lie to the UN and the American people by denying that there was any spy plane, until the Soviets produced the pilot. And while the assassination of John Kennedy produced considerable shock, it was the murder of suspected assassin Oswald, and the whole botched stonybrook college essay deadline that intensified disillusionment with U.

These events all helped weaken respect for the U. First was the anti-racist movement expressed through the Civil Rights war. In the early 's, hundreds of thousands of Americans took to the streets to protest racism against black Americans.

Associated Press The Vietnam antiwar movement, famous for its sound and fury, deserves credit for more. We were the first mass movement war a war in American history and one of its great antiwar movements, yet most Americans essay antiwar enormous protests and social chaos. In essay, the year movement, in which I played a role, was a complex phenomenon that evolved strategically as circumstances changed. War can be broken down into four overlapping stages.

The severe political repression of the 's was still fresh, yet large numbers of movement were willing to publicly stand up and criticize the government. Hundreds were arrested, many of them younger, angrier and more frustrated than the men and women who had led the first wave of opposition. Protesters attempted to shut down induction centers in Berkeley, Calif. Troop trains were impeded. Campus protesters blocked access to military and C. Clergy members dumped blood on draft records.

Hippie organizers manipulated the media with attention-getting stunts. Racism became a focus when it was revealed that blacks were drafted, assigned to combat units and killed at rates significantly higher than whites were. In the nation, and the war, seemed to be spinning out of control: The Tet offensive, the assassinations of the Rev.

Martin Luther King Jr. In November, the election of Richard Nixon confirmed those fears. Large protests continued, but few believed they would stop the war. In a public announcement, they state their reasons for disagreement. People were able to watch the war from their armchair and many American people were disgraced by the sample fulbright eta essays of children dying and innocent people being shot dead in villages.

A perfect example of this, is the My Lai massacre which took place in The images appalled people all over the world, especially American people who felt ashamed of their country's soldiers They only wanted to work in rice paddies without helicopters strafing them and bombs comparing two poems essay example napalm burning their villages and tearing their country apart.

Some are useful in explaining why there was an anti-war essay, other aren't as useful. The anti-war movement started in Source A the first of the seven sources is written by Michael Bilton, a former solider in Vietnam and was in service during the My Lai massacre Some of the opposition came from socialists or radicals who sympathized with the Vietnamese and wanted to help create a united, independent, Vietnam.

Pacifists were also against the war because they believe that all war is wrong. Other people just believed that the war was not worth the lives of American men.

The Vietnam War was mainly a media war shown on television, heard on radio and read in the newspapers There war a new generation of young people in the United States in the 's. There were college educated and highly under the influence of drugs such as Cannabis also known as weed and LSD's which are mind affecting drugs such as Ecstasy also known as Ex.

They were also under the influence of free love which is the idea of everybody having unprotected sex with everybody else and disregarding the consequences which pushed up essays about personal struggle birth rate in the United States in the 's They disagree with one another, which might lead to conflict, and if the conflict is big antiwar, war.

There have been many great battles and wars in the past, but one of the most controversial and protested war in human history was the Vietnam War.

Then hundreds and hundreds of people joined in the laughter and then started chanting as about five hundred walked out of the hall. The nine hundred or so who remained elected officers and pledged to continue to build SDS. But the old NO gang had control of the office and most importantly, of the membership lists. The majority group did not have access to any of the mailing lists and had to try to reconstruct the organization based on personal contacts. The capitalist news media ran story after story about how SDS had collapsed and no longer existed. The liberal and revisionist media took the side of the NO gang, sometimes criticizing them, but blaming the collapse on PLP. One story that they spread was that PLP had packed the convention with hundreds of PLP members who weren't even students in order to win votes; in reality, there were fewer than sixty PLP members out of the fifteen hundred there. But consistent with the bourgeois line, the liberals could not believe that the masses could accept leadership from communists; so they had to say that it was a trick! The media did a job spreading cynicism through the movement, and the NO gang finished the job. As soon as they distanced themselves from PLP, they rapidly degenerated into a collection of squabbling middle class cults, each led by its own self-proclaimed genius. Their version of the SDS newspaper became more and more bizarre, full of self-congratulatory rhetoric and language that attempted to imitate a combination of badly translated Lenin and the worst stereotype of how racists believed that black people spoke. Then they split, and split again, and split again. Every loudmouth from the NO gang had to be the leader, so they each formed their own little group. The "Weathermen" later "Weather Underground" gained the most publicity. They were very heavily infiltrated by the police, and they made a name for themselves by pretending to be terrorists. Actually, they did nothing to hurt the ruling class. A few of them blew themselves up playing with bombs in an expensive New York apartment, but mostly they did stupid, impotent things, like running through a Pittsburgh high school undressed, in order to shock the students. The capitalist news media loved them. They were the perfect stereotypes -- it was a virtually all-white group. One was a lawyer, one was the son of the millionaire head of Commonwealth Edison, the electric company that cheats the Chicago working class, and many of the remainder were from upper class and upper middle income families. If a person's daddy has a lot of money, it does not automatically mean that the person is reactionary. But when a group consists of a bunch of pretty well off kids, whose whole purpose is to express their personal rage, then that is just another form of liberalism -- liberalism with noise, maybe a bomb or two, but mostly thunder without lightning or rain. Threatening: "If you don't stop the war, I'm going to hold my breath until I turn blue" and saying: "If you don't stop the war, I'm going to bomb a statue in the park" is in essence the same thing -- -feeble liberal rage. A few in the Weather Underground split and got involved in some robberies, but in the main, they served the bosses well by maintaining the lie that revolutionaries were spoiled, nutty, white rich kids. Most SDS members did not attend the Chicago convention. The only news they got about SDS was from the capitalist news media, which said SDS no longer existed, and from the rapidly disintegrating NO gang who had the mailing lists , whose pathetic ranting disgusted anyone serious about fighting the system. Many SDS chapters disbanded. There were hysterical ramblings bordering on fascist ideology about riding the rhythm of rock and roll music and grooving with the violence and so forth. Their high point consisted of a feeble action in Chicago's wealthy Gold Coast neighborhood; several hundred ran through the streets breaking windows in stores and parked cars. Numbers of them were arrested, and several leaders fled. The FBI then put some of the leaders on the "most wanted" list because fleeing state lines was a federal crime. They went into hiding and the news media was now able to say that these rich, white kids were terrorists in hiding on the most wanted list. It is important to note that the charges that most of the leaders were fleeing from were insignificant misdemeanors, such as mob action, disorderly conduct, etc. And when some of the main leaders finally turned themselves after fifteen or so years in hiding, most of them received very light penalties; most got no jail sentences, in contrast to hundreds of activists, including many in PLP, whom the bosses jailed for months during that period. The "Weather Underground" served the cops well; as in other countries, police agents can damage a movement by using provocateurs such as these. Those NO gang leaders who did not join the Weather Underground set up a couple of sects based on Mao worship and worship of their own "chairmen. His group was riddled with disgusting personal corruption and eventually collapsed. The group led by Avakian hung on as a tiny sect that alternates between opportunistic politics hidden by a kind of poorly done imitation of militant, angry urban youth language while pathetically trying to elevate "Chairman Avakian" to superstar status. On the heels of the SDS split, capitalism had yet another weapon to use against the developing anti-imperialist youth movement. A massive concert, lasting several days and involving hundreds of thousands of youth was held at Woodstock. The counter-cultural movement, which had been somewhat linked to the leftist political movement in their common objection to certain aspects of capitalism, was now following its inevitable path towards being another form of capitalist diversion. While some said that rock music fostered political rebellion, in the main, it lived off of that rebellion and diverted that rebellion into safe channels the ruling class could accept, including drug abuse and other forms of selfish personal gratification. The school year started out calmer on campus than the previous year. The Worker-Student Alliance could not simply be a strategy; it had to be a reality. When any movement reaches its limits, it must either transform based on the processes that have developed within it, or it must become twisted, perverted, distorted and eventually die out. The campus movement had militantly battled police, shut down universities, and mobilized hundreds of thousands of students. If that movement did not broaden its approach and focus its intense energy outward towards the working class, it would self-destruct. It was approaching its limits as a campus only movement. PLP had organized "work-ins" where dozens of students took factory jobs for the summer in order to build ties with workers and build anti-imperialism within the industrial working class. The CWSA was based on the idea that the obvious place that students could reach out to workers on a consistent basis was the campus. SDS chapters effectively supported and participated in many rank and file campus workers' struggles. There was some confusion as some members mistakenly thought that we were abandoning the anti-imperialist struggle in order to concentrate on winning economic demands for campus workers. That was wrong. The goal was to build an anti-imperialist base of support among workers and develop lasting relationships that would build a solid alliance. Fall, saw another massive demonstration in Washington. The party proposed that SDS lead a break-away from the main march over to the Department of Labor building in support of General Electric workers that were striking. The chant: "Warmaker, Strikebreaker, Smash GE" rang out as over seven thousand people joined our action. For the next few months, the campuses actually toned down a bit. There were some struggles organized by black students, but the belief that SDS had collapsed hurt the campus anti-war movement. There were some militant protests, but some of the optimism of the anti-imperialist campus movement was fading, as Nixon, drugs, the SDS split, and political repression took their toll. In March, , there were a few rumblings again. They were attacked by the police and they drove the police off campus. There were a few other skirmishes on campuses. Then, President Nixon ordered the U. There were explosions on dozens of campuses. Tens of thousands of students took to the streets, often with no organizational leadership. The war was broadening out; it was time to take action. President Nixon got on television and called the protestors "bums. On a number of campuses, students were shot. At Kent State University, four of the students died. The news media carried pictures of the shootings, including of Guardsmen firing into a crowd, using illegal pistols, and shooting at people who were running away. Then, campuses exploded all over the United States. Actually, over a dozen black students were killed by police over the previous few years, but racism caused many students to take the Kent State shootings more seriously. Maybe it was the realization that capitalism was coming to get them too that shocked them. In any case, over five hundred campuses were shut down by angry students who blocked doorways, occupied buildings, and fought pitched battles using bottles, stones, and sticks against the police. ROTC buildings were burned down on a number of campuses, and many campuses stayed shut down for the rest of the school year. In the context of that struggle, SDS tried to focus the campus strikes against the university administrations and government. On many campuses, liberal students and faculty made deals with university presidents to hurt the anti-war struggle by pretending to support it. College presidents officially closed their campuses for a few days to shed some phony tears, take control of the anti-war movement, and then reopen the colleges with imperialist business as usual. Revisionist groups aided this sell out in ways that were especially treacherous. In Detroit, at Wayne State University, for example, the Trotskyite "Socialist Workers Party" argued that forcing ROTC off campus was not a revolutionary enough demand; they said it would be better to take control over the whole university and turn it into an anti-war university, a center from which anti-war students could organize the whole city. It sounded very revolutionary, but see how it worked out. The university bosses agreed to give the SWP gang office space, use of printing facilities, and paper. The SWP then said that the university was now "theirs" and there was no need to keep the strike going. The SWP got bought real cheap -- a little bit of paper and some ink. There is a lesson here for organizers about learning how to see beneath revolutionary rhetoric to grasp the essence of a political line. The massive strikes following Kent State was the high point, and the beginning of the end of the campus anti-war movement. The liberals organized another big march on Washington, the last really massive march. The police-infested "Weathermen" organized an attack against our office there, and we successfully beat them up as we had done time after time. But on the campuses, the mood was changing. Many students said: "I didn't believe you revolutionaries when you said that capitalism was ruthless. I was wrong. You were right. I'm scared. I'm going to drop out of things for a while. The following two years , and were marked by a major let down on campus. The news media began to report protests less and less. In a sense, that points out a major weakness of the Sixties anti-war movement. They were dependent on the capitalist news media for publicizing their actions, and when the news media cut back, much of that movement became isolated, because they did not build a base with the working class. There were occasional bright spots during that time, such as the shouting and clapping down by students at Harvard of government mouthpieces who were defending U. But in general, the movement was fragmented, and the "Weather Underground" proved very helpful to the bosses in harming the movement. Other secret police agents were involved in various phony terrorist plots to discredit the movement, and by now, drug use was so common on college campuses that one could see marijuana clouds floating out the windows of conservative fraternity houses. The movement was further confused by developments in Vietnam and China. The North Vietnamese leadership was now seriously talking with the U. Students wondered: Would the war end soon? Should we continue to risk education, jobs, life, and limb if there is going to be a settlement any day now? Then Mao Zedong, the most important revolutionary in the world, began discussions to improve relations with Nixon. Nixon couldn't go to any city in the U. This further undermined the anti-imperialist movement all over the world, including in the U. Was the most prestigious Marxist-Leninist in the world saying that Nixon and U. Some leftists tried to defend that policy with some bizarre logic about how Mao the government official had a different capacity from Mao the communist. But the effect was to confuse and demoralize sections of the anti-imperialist movement in the U. Although the mass anti-war movement was in a state of decline, our party continued to sharpen our line and recruit more and more students to the party. We reevaluated our work and made a sharp self-criticism that we had not fought nationalism hard enough in the past, and as a result had not won enough black students and workers into membership and leadership of the party. SDS focused more sharply on campus racism, as well, organizing campaigns against academic racists such as Jensen, Herrnstein, Shockley, and Banfield. The bosses were now funding campus Afro-American Cultural Centers as a way to undercut the anti-racist movement, and Senator George McGovern was brought out to be a "peace" candidate for President in order to further divert the energies of youth. And the negotiations with North Vietnam dragged on. And the Chinese leadership got cozier and cozier with the U. In the spring of , it was clear that the U. Nixon hoped that massive bombing of Hanoi, the capital of North Vietnam, might force the North Vietnamese to negotiate a settlement that would allow the U. Thousands of civilians were killed by the U. There were militant protests on a number of U. During that two year period when campus activity had fallen off, there was increasing militancy from the working class. There were strikes in major industries, and militant caucuses were leading wildcat strikes against their union leaderships as well. The important anti-war action was taking place inside the military. Thousands of U. Several hundred U. The bosses had to allow, even encourage drug use as a way to try to prevent rebellions. S was still losing the war in Vietnam, and more people in the U. When the massive, murderous bombing of Hanoi failed to bring the North Vietnamese to their knees U. But if there were enough South Vietnamese troops to defeat the rebels to begin with, it would not have been necessary for the U. Basically, as the U. In , the NLF and North Vietnamese army directly attacked Saigon and captured the city, while newspapers all over the world showed desperate, frightened U. Large parts of Cambodia were devastated, populations were dislocated, and famine and war brought on by the U. But the war was over, and the anti-war movement was over. After burning down buildings and shutting down schools, the campus movement had reached its limit. It was faced with the choice of transforming to worker-student alliance or become twisted, and distorted and eventually defeated. That movement was not totally defeated. By late , SDS as an organization had also reached its limit. What was needed was an organization that was the worker-student alliance, rather than an organization of students that would ally with workers. InCAR soon developed a base off the campus as well, and established a firm base in a number of cities, with branches at schools, hospitals, factories, and neighborhoods. As we enter another period of inter-imperialist wars, InCAR and PLP are in a much stronger position to lead masses of workers and students than we were in the 's. What Came Out Of It? There is a tendency to view the campus anti-war movement in one-sided ways. Some people mistakenly say that that movement was the main force that ended the war. Others say that that movement was irrelevant to anything. The campus movement was not a main force in ending that war, but it was an important force in helping to build anti-imperialist consciousness in general and the communist movement, PLP, in particular. The antiwar movement against Vietnam in the US from was the most significant movement of its kind in the nation's history. Anti-war protesters "were not confined to the young, radicals, intellectuals, and the disaffected The wave of demonstrations on hundreds of college campuses paralyzed America's higher-education system. The Kent State tragedy ignited a nationwide campus disaster. Between May 4 and May 8, campuses experienced an average of demonstrations a day, campus strikes, colleges shut down, and 73 colleges reported significant violence in their protests. On that weekend, , people gathered to protest in Washington. By May 12, over colleges were on strike VN H. Many of Nixon's activities during the second week of May revolved around the Kent State crisis. On May 6, he met with the delegation of the university. But with the storm of people on the outside of the White House, the government never completely stopped. Despite Nixon's claims that the media did not portray his serious intentions accurately, his own records reveal almost no discussion of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Kent State at the time. On December 15, Nixon announced his intention to withdraw an additional fifty thousand troops in Even the president's faith in that position was shattered after the unprecedented nationwide protests against his invasion of Cambodia in the spring of Lewis, As the Nixon administration tried to piece together in the weeks after the crisis, a dramatic decline in antiwar occurred once the colleges closed. The nationwide response to the Cambodian invasion and the Kent State killings was the last movement by the people, which had such an impact like the summer of Nixon began to plan a new and even more vigorous offensive against the movement. However, Nixon and his aides still felt undersized during the summer of from the media, movement, and Congress. For whatever reasons, campus demonstrations and general antiwar activity declined after the spring of The number and size of marches and protests declined as reported by the mass media. For Nixon, the nation was full with marches, strikes, boycotts, and other forms of activism during the last two years of his administration. Some protesting still lingered, and in the late summer on August 7, , when a young researcher at the University of Wisconsin was killed when the building in which he was working was fire bombed. But the Dove rallies were poorly attended; the movement was winding down. It was not just that the movement was doing poorly, as Nixon himself was doing much better, becoming a popular Democratic spokesperson. On September 16, he appeared to cheering crowds at Kansas State University. The antiwar movement figured indirectly in the outcome of Vietnam. After Saigon fell, the Watergate affair crippled Nixon's presidency and dominated his political life until his resignation in August During this period, he was far too weak to contest with Congress over a renewal of American military involvement in Vietnam. As the crisis in Southern Vietnam now deepened in the middle of , the new president, Gerald Ford, wanted to increase military aide to the faltering Saigon regime. Congress refused his requests to what it saw as pouring more money and lives away. Continuing in to , the public with the movement, led by Congress and the media, all influenced the arguments presented to more financial and military commitments in Vietnam. The struggle of the American minds was over, for there would be no more Vietnams in the near future. Among the most convincing theories of the movement were that it exerted pressures directly on Johnson and Nixon it contributed to the end of their policies. The movement exerted pressures indirectly by turning the public against the war. It encouraged the Northern Vietnamese to fight on long enough to the point that Americans demanded a withdrawal from Southeast Asia; it influenced American political and military strategy; and, slowed the growth of the hawks. It is now clear that the antiwar movement and antiwar criticism in the media and Congress had a significant impact on Vietnam. It's key points being the mass demonstrations by the college students across the country and the general public opposition to the war effort in Vietnam. At times, some of their activities, as displayed by the media, may have produced a patriotic backlash. Gaullucci, Seasoned activists were moving on to complete deferred professional or academic goals. Many of us who remained realized that a majority of Americans had turned against the war but they felt unable or unwilling to join us because our militancy required them to risk arrest or injury. A new strategy was needed, and a fourth stage of the antiwar movement emerged. This was not done to repudiate our past but to be more effective going forward. Very quickly, new organizations sprang up to involve people in actions that did not require significant risk. Activist groups opened direct talks with the National Liberation Front in South Vietnam and sent delegations to the North. Networks of draft counselors were created. Antiwar candidates ran for office. A blossoming infrastructure gave the antiwar movement radio news outlets, documentary film capability and a syndicated news service. Law firms formed to defend its work, and networks of donors were created. Two nationwide organizations rapidly developed. The Indochina Peace Campaign, with dozens of offices and chapters, produced educational material, coordinated protests, promoted lobbying and published a newspaper. Medical Aid for Indochina, which I led, raised money for medicines and medical equipment that we sent to North Vietnamese hospitals treating the civilian victims of American bombing. Despite all our work, Nixon expanded the bombing of North Vietnamese cities throughout Hoping for better terms, he sabotaged peace talks before the November election, then mercilessly bombed Hanoi just before Christmas, destroying Bach Mai, its largest civilian hospital. That ended the war for the military, but not for the antiwar movement. The South Vietnam regime lived on, funded by American dollars, and its war with the North continued. Nixon had to get those dollars from Congress, and knowing that Congress could be lobbied, we saw it as the weak link in the chain holding up South Vietnam. Antiwar groups, with significant support from labor and religious networks, created the Coalition to Stop Funding the War, an enormous lobbying campaign to cut funding for South Vietnam. As each of several congressional appropriations for South Vietnam came up, the coalition successfully whittled it down.

As World War II ended, the young males returned to their movements. They began families antiwar brought a movement number of new children into the world. This dramatic increase in the number of births is called the Baby Boom A war plagued by fatalities and extreme costs. It began as a political essay, when North Vietnam tried to overrun and impose communism on South Vietnam. Americans, at war outset, what character traits i have for career essay war the war was justified and worthwhile.

Antiwar movement vietnam war essay

Opinion started to movement, at antiwar among young people, as the war lingered and the death toll rose. Peace protesters emerged, and along with the peace movement came music. The Baby Boomers were new war of people. The infamous Vietnam War and the new alternative culture were pushing the United States towards a essay of liberalism and a nationwide rebellion against the social norms. The question of why the United States was engaging in a war between North and South Vietnam was raised.