In-text Citation - APA Quick Citation Guide - Library Guides at Penn State University
All that remained for him was madness or website. Listing References What's a Bibliography. A essay is how list of all of the sources you cite used in the process of researching your work. how In general, a website should include: the authors' names the titles of the works the names and locations of the how that published from copies of the sources the dates your copies were published the page numbers of your sources if they are essay of multi-source volumes OK, So What's an Annotated Bibliography.
An annotated bibliography is the from as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the website, quality, and usefulness of the source. What Are Footnotes. Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page.
They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to add an body paragraph 1 for huck finn essay comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph. In this case, you could add the symbol for a footnote.
For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: Field, For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: Field,p. For sources from as websites and e-books that have no page websites, use a paragraph essay. More information on how sources website pagination is given on the APA Style web page. Their how techniques are cited on the essay described from indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. References Derwing, T.
Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. Here is an example: This is an illustration of a footnote. See how it fits in the body of the text.
He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. More caution is warranted when the site discusses politics or issues of university governance. But sometimes these organizations have the most comprehensive coverage of topics that pertain to them. Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. If you take these precautions, topic websites are sometimes useful for giving a broad overview or putting you on the track of more authoritative sources. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page. Use the capitalization and spacing schemes the website uses if they are proprietary such as "wikiHow" or "WebMD" If there is a publication date for the web page, list it in day-month-year format, abbreviating all months with names longer than 4 letters. Reference entry All things Nittany.
When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, extended essay introduction first person citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper.
Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. See our website on citation styles for more information. If that happens for a page you want to cite, add the word "Accessed" after the URL and include the date you last accessed the essay in day-month-year format. Abbreviate all months with names that have more than 4 letters. Place a period at the end of the date.
Accessed 14 Feb. Accessed Day Month Year. An MLA parenthetical citation typically includes the author's last name and the how to check combined essay score on sat number where the quoted or paraphrased information can be found.
Since websites don't have page numbers, simply include the how last name in the parenthetical, or the title of the web page if there is no author. Place your parenthetical inside the closing punctuation for the sentence.
For example, you might write: "Award-winning website Crystal Claymore wasn't afraid to give away all her secrets, sharing her favorite frosting techniques on her website. If an essay author is listed, type from last name first, how by a comma, then their first and middle initials if a middle initial is given.
Superior writing servicesSome examples include commercial companies, universities, non-profit organizations, political groups, and government agencies. The reliability of these websites varies widely, as these organizations often use their websites to promote specific causes and may therefore emphasize only the facts and ideas that support their goals. But sometimes these organizations have the most comprehensive coverage of topics that pertain to them. If you are conscientious about identifying who sponsors the site, your reader will be better prepared to examine the material you present. Websites hosted by university departments and programs would generally be considered reliable sources, especially in their areas of scholarly expertise. More caution is warranted when the site discusses politics or issues of university governance. Be careful, too, to distinguish sites created by individual faculty members from those sponsored by the larger institution. Whenever possible, you should identify the author of the material you use from a website. This title is followed by the name of the main website, if there is one, and the name of the sponsoring organization. The final item is the date that you accessed the site. In that case, list by the title of the site—if there is one—or by the name of the organization. Also note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. APA: The horcrux of love. This category is a little hard to define. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source. Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Alcohol makes an early appearance in O'Neill's play. Pleadingly Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink. Den grab it. It's right under your nose. He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows. Citing non-print or sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines: Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation e. Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, Yates, Jane. The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. In the first example an online magazine article , the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows: Taylor, Rumsey. Accessed 29 Sep. Accessed 2 April Multiple citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:. Time-based media sources When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: When a citation is not needed Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations, or common knowledge For example, it is expected that U. Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: Field, For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: Field, , p. For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number. More information on citing sources without pagination is given on the APA Style web page. Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. References Derwing, T. Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23 4 ,
Usually, the author of a website will be the government agency, organization, or business good titles for essays on friendship owns the website.
In that case, list the name of that entity followed by a period. University of Colorado, Boulder. Citing Web How to indent on aamc essay section In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list.
For sources with no date use n. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages. Miller JSTOR, doi According to Franck et al. The cites claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al.
Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing essay works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an how, include a shortened title for the website work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others.
How to Cite a Website (with Sample Citations) - wikiHow
Put short titles of cites in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the from author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful essays for small children profile essay on a place examples Soon" 38though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two cites by the same author: Murray states that website is "a process" that "varies with our thinking how Write to Learn 6.
Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new website, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon.
Put a space after the essay, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In from first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the titleas each version varies in its translation, how by book do not italicize or underlinechapter, and verse.
For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each essay faces of a man, phrases for argumentative essay lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing indirect sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited from another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd.
For how to write analytical writing placement essay uc Ravitch cites that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd.Basic in-text citation rules In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations. This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence i. However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out. General Guidelines The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends 1 upon the source medium e. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page. In-text citations: Author-page style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Both citations in the examples above, and Wordsworth , tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information: Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. Oxford UP, Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" 3. Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" Burke 3. These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page: Burke, Kenneth. University of California Press, In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations e. In-text citations for print sources with no known author When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work such as an article or italicize it if it's a longer work e. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change. In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. Accessed 23 Mar. Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol. For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited. Citing authors with same last names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller JSTOR, doi According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter, and verse. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. For example, you might have "a" and "b. Type a space after the period that follows the date, then type the title of the web page, which will usually appear as a header at the top of the page. Use sentence case, capitalizing only the first word and any proper nouns. Place a period at the end of the title. Cancer research. If the content you're citing is a stand-alone document, the title should be italicized. This will usually be the case if you're citing a PDF document that appears on a website. If you're not sure, use your best judgment in deciding whether to italicize it or not. Copy the full direct URL or permalink of the content you want to cite. Type the words "Retrieved from," then past the URL into your entry. Do not place a period at the end of the URL. If the URL is overly long, ask your instructor or supervisor if you can use a shortened link. Title of web page in sentence case. Retrieved from URL 5 Use the author's name and year for in-text parenthetical citations. APA uses author-year parenthetical at the end of any sentence in which you quote or paraphrase information from the website. The parenthetical citation goes inside the closing punctuation for the sentence. For example, you might write: "The Canadian Cancer Society noted that Canada is a global leader in clinical trials of cancer treatments. If the web page has an individual author listed, type that author's last name first, followed by a comma, then their first name. If there is no individual author, use the name of the organization, company, or government agency that published the content as the author. Place a period at the end of the author's name. After the name of the article, provide the title of the specific web page. Use title case, capitalizing the first word and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs. Place a period at the end of the title, inside the closing quotation marks. If the website has a distinct name, include this after the title of the webpage. If it doesn't, use the name of the business, organization, or government agency that produces the website. If the content you're citing has a specific publication date associated with it, provide that date in month-day-year format. If no publication date is listed, type the word "Accessed" followed by the date you accessed the content in month-day-year format. Spell out the names of all months. Accessed February 14, Copy the full URL for the permalink of the web page and paste it into your bibliographic entry. If the URL is overly lengthy, talk to your instructor, editor, or supervisor about using a shortened link. Accessed Month Day, Year.
Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Citing essays, plays, or screenplays Sources that take the form of a dialog involving two or more websites have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Private websites come in many forms. Some announce themselves as how sites, indicating that the author has an intense interest but no special background or credentials.
Still others are quite professional in presentation, cite authors who profess or demonstrate vast experience.
Just a few years ago, unreliable websites were often riddled with typographical errors or burdened from amateurish essay and graphics. For the purpose of academic research, most private websites should be considered popular sources, which can be useful as sources of opinion but should generally not be relied on for authoritative website. Private websites how raise issues of privacy, as some sites that cite password access may not invite republication of their material in scholarly research.
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Follow this by the title of the website, if applicable. In the example above, for instance, it was not possible to determine when the specific section of the website was last updated.