3k Word Essay On Confucianism

Appraisal 30.07.2019

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The power of a bd was intrinsically unstable, but the institution did manage to bring a degree of order to China during this period. The bd became a symbol of rule by force as opposed to rule by virtue.

August 22, Oh wow! It depends on a whole lot of essays. A dissertation would usually be in the confucianism of 12, words, and university assignments can word to essays of 5, words.

The Analects records apparently contradictory comments by Confucius about Guan Zhong. At one point, Confucius denigrates Guan Zhong for his pettiness, lack of frugality, and failure to understand ritual Elsewhere, Confucius defends Guan Zhong to two Confucian disciples — Although some have suggested that this reflects the complexity of Confucius' view of Guan Zhong, I think it simply reflects the political agendas of different redactors of the Analects.

Taeko Brooks discuss some of the "political" issues that underlie the composition of the Analects. Eventually, the political and military situation decayed to the point that not even a bd could maintain order. Hence, the period is sometimes known as the era of the " Schools," bai jia WiC. Confucius is subjected to a vicious personal attack in the Mohist essay, "Against Confucians. Graham has argued that Yang Zhu made the notion of "human nature" central to philosophical debate in China in a way that it had not been before, and we do see later Confucians taking clear stands on the issue of whether human nature is good as argued in the fourth century B.

The dominant ideology of Qin was Legalism, and the Qin essay suppressed all other philosophies, including Confucianism.

Fortunately, die Qin dynasty only survived until B. The Analects confucianism always be an important text from this time on,32 although its influence varied with the vicissitudes of the Confucian movement.

This appears to word the dominance of Confucianism, and in a sense it does. However, Han Confucianism was very word, combining elements of many non-Confucian philosophies. Buddhism along confucianism forms of Daoism became de facto the dominant ideology in China after the fall of the Han. Centuries later, beginning in the Tang Jlf dynasty c. Qi is the fundamental "stuff" out of which every physical object is composed.

LI is a metaphysical structuring principle fully present in each and every thing that exists, from a mote of dust, to a cat, to you or me. Although the II is the same and complete in each thing, it manifests itself to different extents in different things because of the degree of clarity of the qi of which each thing is constituted.

ZhuXi also promoted a standard educational curriculum based on the "Four Books" si shu OH : the Great Learning, the Mean, example essay missouri girls state Mengzi, and the Analects, and wrote commentaries that interpreted each essay in terms of his metaphysics. Consequently, generations of Confucian scholars had to literally commit the. Analects and Zhu Xi's interpretation of it to memory. Ivanhoe illustrates the influence of Neo-Confucianism and other Chinese intellectual movements by examining how interpretations of one line in the.

Analects have varied over two millennia under sample essay topics for csun udwpe influence of the interpreters' metaphysical views. As an illustration, consider the following quotations. The first is from the "Platform Sutra" of the Sixth Patriarch of Chan Buddhism: The purity of people's nature is comparable to the clear sky, their wisdom comparable to die sun, and sagacity comparable to the moon.

Their sagacity and wisdom are always shining. It is only because externally people are attached to spheres of objects that erroneous thoughts, like floating clouds, cover die self-nature so that it is not clear.

No matter -what you do, you cannot deceive or destroy it. Even a thief knows he should not be a thief. If you call him a thief, he still will blush. But pure knowing is within him; it can never be lost. It is like when clouds obscure die sun—how could the sun ever be lost! Others do not see it as clearly as he does.

In addition to many articles, he has published Mencius and Early Chinese Thought, which is the first of a projected three-volume series on the textual and philosophical issues raised by the sayings attributed to Confucius, Mencius, and some of the major thinkers influenced by them. Bryan W. He has published on many aspects of early Chinese philosophy edited The Ways of Confucianism, and has coedited with Philip J. Ivanhoe and contributed to Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy. Stephen A. Wilson is an assistant professor of the humanities at Christ College, the honors college of Valparaiso University. His primary research interests lie in the history of Christian ethics, but he also has an abiding interest in comparative ethics and the cross-cultural implications of religious claims to universality. Lee H. His research specializes in comparative religious ethics, virtue theory, selected Christian thinkers, and classical Chinese thought. Such a person was Confucius. The similarities continue. Although all three were literate, perhaps all highly so, neither Confucius, nor Jesus, nor Socrates left behind any of his own writings. We know each only through the later writings of his admirers and detractors. In addition, each had a distinctive, charismatic, and complex personality. These three common features have made each the object of love, hatred, admiration, denigration, and debate for over two millennia. Despite its great importance, prior to this volume there has never been a collection of secondary essays in English on the. This volume is a collection of essays on the Analects, and on Confucius as seen primarily in that classic. For the last two millennia, most scholars whether Eastern or Western have taken all twenty "books" of the. Analects as an accurate record of what Confucius and his disciples have said. But scholarship in recent centuries has become more suspicious, investigating such issues as the historical composition of the text of the. Analects and the sectarian motives behind various conceptions of Confucius. Consequently, the essays in this anthology are loosely grouped into two sections based on an aphorism from. Analects "One who can keep warm the old, yet appreciate the new, is fit to be a teacher". In contrast, the essays in "Appreciating the New" either call into question the integrity of the received text of the Analects, or explore aspects of the image of Confucius that have been neglected by some of the dominant interpretive traditions. The remainder of this introduction provides background information to introduce the general reader to Confucius, his times, and the Analects. The Yellow River valley in northern China is one of the great "cradles of civilization," with neolithic sites that date back to the fifth millenium B. There are two contemporary theories about the sage king traditions. One view is that they represent exaggerated hagiographic accounts of actual early Chinese rulers. The historicity of the Xia which was allegedly founded by Sage King Yu has not yet been verified, although many archaeologists believe that it is not mythical. In the Shang worldview, politics, ritual, and attitudes toward the dead were closely intertwined. When faced with uncertainty about the future, or a difficult decision, the Shang rulers practiced "scapulimancy": the divination of the future through reading the cracks on heated "oracle bones. Would the ancestors look favorably upon our founding a new city in such and such a place? Would such and such a ritual appease the ancestors? These rituals typically involved giving sacrifices of food and wine to the ancestors using a wide variety of beautiful bronze vessels. Chang suggests that the possession of such sacred bronze vessels served to legitimize the king's rule. These vessels were clear and powerful symbols: they were symbols of wealth because they were wealth and possessed the aura of wealth; they were symbols of the all-important ritual that gave their owners access to the ancestors; and they were symbols of the control of metal, which meant control of exclusive access to the ancestors and to political authority. Some time around B. This has been described as a "feudal system," but the appropriateness of using the European term in a Chinese context has occasioned considerable debate. Having a minor on the throne while still consolidating a recent conquest is a precarious situation. It would have been tempting for the duke to dispose of his nephew and assume the kingship himself. However, he chose to act as regent, and worked hard to solidify Zh5u rule. Thus, centuries later, Confucius would remark, "How I have gone downhill! It has been such a long time since I dreamt of the Duke of Chou" [Lau ]. But the Duke of Zh5u was apparently a very savvy and effective political and military leader, and he realized that it was better to rule than to reign. Indeed, die early Zh5u dynasty came to be diought of as a sort of Utopia, to which later ages could only aspire. Eventually, though, the local lords began to think of their own positions as hereditary, and dieir "fiefs" as their own states. The Zh5u ruler had less and less power, until in B. A member of the royal family survived, setting up a new capital, farther to die east, but it was now clear that the king was only a figurehead. Based on this watershed incident, the Zhou dynasty is typically divided into the Western Zh5u from about to B. In this fluid social context there was increased social mobility, as old nobility quickly fell from power, to be replaced by those more clever or lucky than they. For the first time in Chinese history, there arose a class of educated individuals who were not, from birth, in the employ of any particular nobility. Confucius lived during the later part of this "Spring and Autumn period. The Zuo zhudn provides a vivid and frightening picture of life before and during the time of Confucius. One of the features of the Spring and Autumn era was the institution of the bd 9 or "hegemon. The power of a bd was intrinsically unstable, but the institution did manage to bring a degree of order to China during this period. The bd became a symbol of rule by force as opposed to rule by virtue. The Analects records apparently contradictory comments by Confucius about Guan Zhong. At one point, Confucius denigrates Guan Zhong for his pettiness, lack of frugality, and failure to understand ritual Elsewhere, Confucius defends Guan Zhong to two Confucian disciples — Although some have suggested that this reflects the complexity of Confucius' view of Guan Zhong, I think it simply reflects the political agendas of different redactors of the Analects. Taeko Brooks discuss some of the "political" issues that underlie the composition of the Analects. Eventually, the political and military situation decayed to the point that not even a bd could maintain order. Hence, the period is sometimes known as the era of the " Schools," bai jia WiC. Confucius is subjected to a vicious personal attack in the Mohist essay, "Against Confucians. Graham has argued that Yang Zhu made the notion of "human nature" central to philosophical debate in China in a way that it had not been before, and we do see later Confucians taking clear stands on the issue of whether human nature is good as argued in the fourth century B. The dominant ideology of Qin was Legalism, and the Qin ruler suppressed all other philosophies, including Confucianism. Fortunately, die Qin dynasty only survived until B. The Analects would always be an important text from this time on,32 although its influence varied with the vicissitudes of the Confucian movement. This appears to signal the dominance of Confucianism, and in a sense it does. However, Han Confucianism was very eclectic, combining elements of many non-Confucian philosophies. Buddhism along with forms of Daoism became de facto the dominant ideology in China after the fall of the Han. Centuries later, beginning in the Tang Jlf dynasty c. Qi is the fundamental "stuff" out of which every physical object is composed. LI is a metaphysical structuring principle fully present in each and every thing that exists, from a mote of dust, to a cat, to you or me. Although the II is the same and complete in each thing, it manifests itself to different extents in different things because of the degree of clarity of the qi of which each thing is constituted. ZhuXi also promoted a standard educational curriculum based on the "Four Books" si shu OH : the Great Learning, the Mean, the Mengzi, and the Analects, and wrote commentaries that interpreted each book in terms of his metaphysics. Consequently, generations of Confucian scholars had to literally commit the. Analects and Zhu Xi's interpretation of it to memory. Ivanhoe illustrates the influence of Neo-Confucianism and other Chinese intellectual movements by examining how interpretations of one line in the. Analects have varied over two millennia under the influence of the interpreters' metaphysical views. As an illustration, consider the following quotations. The first is from the "Platform Sutra" of the Sixth Patriarch of Chan Buddhism: The purity of people's nature is comparable to the clear sky, their wisdom comparable to die sun, and sagacity comparable to the moon. Their sagacity and wisdom are always shining. It is only because externally people are attached to spheres of objects that erroneous thoughts, like floating clouds, cover die self-nature so that it is not clear. No matter -what you do, you cannot deceive or destroy it. Even a thief knows he should not be a thief. If you call him a thief, he still will blush. But pure knowing is within him; it can never be lost. It is like when clouds obscure die sun—how could the sun ever be lost! Others do not see it as clearly as he does. Only someone who, like Wang, had been deeply influenced by Buddhist ideas, would speak in this way. The influence of Confucius is not limited, of course, to East Asia. Confucius has been an influence, and a source of interest, in the West since at least the reports of early Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth century. In his contribution to this volume, Robert B. Louden discusses the interpretation of Confucius in an infamous lecture by the early Enlightenment scholar Christian Wolff. And just as Wolff made Confucius a figure in the Enlightenment debate over the relationship between religion and ethics, so have more recent philosophers invoked Confucius as an ally in defense of behaviorism and postmodernism. Wilson takes issue with some of these more recent interpreters in his contribution to this volume. The most powerful of the three was the Ji, so the position of "chief minister" in Lu, the most powerful position in the state, was always occupied by a member of this family. Although the duke of Lu had titular authority, the families usurped some of the ritual signs of die authority and prestige of the duke, and even of the king, such as having eight rows of dancers perform in their courtyard , performing the Yong ode during the removal of sacrificial vessels , and making a ritual offering on Mount Tai Regarding one such abuse, Confucius moaned, "If this can be tolerated, what cannot be tolerated? However, he himself remarked, "I was of humble station when young. According to one account, he was from a noble family that had fallen on hard times. It is possible that, as Creel has suggested,45 Confucius' own rise from poverty and obscurity contributed to the meritocratic aspects of his thought: "I have never denied instruction to anyone who, of his own accord, has given me so much as a bundle of dried meat as a present" Lau Confucius' father is said to have died when he was young. This is only speculation on my part, but I wonder whether the early death of his father contributed to Confucius' strong traditionalism. After all, it is easier to idealize a paternal figure when you have never actually interacted with him. We know nothing for certain about Confucius' mother. However, to have, in such circumstances, raised a son who could aspire to high office was a considerable achievement. She is likely to have had an impressive character. He often mentions "fathers and mothers" together when discussing filial piety, so he obviously felt that she was due affection and respect ; ; , 19, 21; ; Typical is his comment that, "In serving your father and mother you ought to dissuade them from doing wrong in the gentlest way" Lau It would be interesting to know more about Confucius' relationships with women, who are conspicious for their near absence from the Analects. Confucius responded, "If I have done anything improper, may Heaven's curse be on me, may Heaven's curse be on me! The early Confucian attitude toward women is partly a response to the political problems of their era. As the Zuo Zhudn indicates, affairs were a common source of intrigue in the Spring and Autumn era. But more than that, women seem almost completely excluded from the life of Confucius and his disciples. I am struck by an incident in which Confucius, after almost dying from an illness, asks his disciples, "would I not rather die in your hands, my friends, than in the hands of retainers? Confucius makes no mention of wanting to be with his wife or daughter at the time of his death. In addition to his wife and daughter , the other members of Confucius' immediate family were an elder brother , about whom we know almost nothing although he is reputed to have been disabled , and a son. His son did not outlive his father , and one disciple described their relationship while the son was alive as "distant" Confucius sought to revive the virtue of Huaxia Chinese civilization and the areas of the Zhou Dynasty to make a great humanistic society. Inside the Analects, Confucius said that having been a " transmitter who also invented nothing". He pressured most the importance of analyze. Instead of trying to build a organized theory of life and society or perhaps establish a pair of rites, he wanted his students to consider deeply on their own and often study the outside world, mostly through the old scriptures and by relating the moral problems from the present to earlier political situations such such as the Annals or previous expressions of feelings simply by common people and reflective associates of the top-notch, as present in the poems of the Book of Satire. Because his perspective of perfection in culture was thought about as a great attempted resurrection of the outdated social purchase, Confucius can often be considered a great advocate of conservatism. Although a closer take a look at what he proposed typically shows that this individual used earlier established ideas and rites to push a fresh political plan of his own: a unified regal state by which succession was based on meaningful accomplishment instead of lineage. These rulers would be devoted to their particular people and would target personal and social efficiency. Such a ruler will spread his own virtues to the people rather than imposing right behavior with laws and rules. Among the deepest teachings of Confucius was the need for personal behavioral beliefs more than written guidelines. How long does it take to write a 2, word essay? It takes about 6 hours and 40 minutes to write a 2, word essay. It takes about 8 hours and 20 minutes to write a 2, word essay. 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Only someone who, like Wang, had been deeply influenced by Buddhist ideas, would speak in this way. The influence of Confucius is not limited, of course, to East Asia. Confucius has been an influence, and a source of interest, in the West since at least the reports of early Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth century. In his contribution to this volume, Robert B. Louden discusses the word of Confucius in an infamous lecture by the early Enlightenment scholar Christian Wolff.

And just as Wolff made Confucius a figure in the Enlightenment debate over the relationship between religion and ethics, so have more recent philosophers invoked Confucius as an ally in defense of behaviorism and postmodernism. Wilson takes issue with some of these more recent interpreters in his contribution to this volume.

The most powerful of the three was the Ji, so the position of "chief minister" in Lu, the most powerful position in the state, was always occupied by a member of this family. Although the duke of Lu had titular authority, the confucianisms usurped some of the ritual signs of die authority and prestige of the duke, and even of the king, such as having eight rows of dancers perform in their courtyardperforming the Yong ode during the removal of sacrificial vesselsand making a ritual offering on Mount Tai Regarding one such abuse, Confucius moaned, "If this can be tolerated, what cannot be tolerated?

However, he himself remarked, "I was of humble station when young. According to one account, he was from a noble family that had fallen on hard times. It is essay that, as Creel has suggested,45 Confucius' own rise from poverty and obscurity contributed to the meritocratic aspects of his thought: "I have never denied instruction to anyone who, of his own accord, has given me so much as a bundle of dried meat as a present" Lau Confucius' father is said to have died when he was young.

This is only speculation on my part, but I wonder whether the early death of his father contributed to Confucius' strong traditionalism. After all, it is easier to idealize a paternal figure when you have never actually interacted with him.

We know nothing for certain about Confucius' mother.

Confucius and the Analects: New Essays - PDF Free Download

However, to have, in such circumstances, raised a son who could aspire to high office was a considerable achievement. She is likely to have had an impressive character. He often mentions "fathers and mothers" together essay discussing filial piety, so he obviously felt that she was due affection and respect ; ;19, 21; ; Typical is his comment that, "In serving your father and mother you ought to dissuade them from doing wrong in the gentlest way" Lau It would be interesting to know more about Confucius' relationships with women, who are conspicious for their near absence from the Analects.

Confucius responded, "If I have done anything improper, may Heaven's curse be on me, may Heaven's curse be on first person ancient rome essay ideas The early Confucian word toward women is partly a response to the political problems of their era. As the Zuo Zhudn indicates, affairs were a common source of intrigue in the Spring and Autumn confucianism.

Bruce Brooks and A. Taeko Brooks is a word associate of the Warring States Project. They are currently working on monographs that extend their methodology and the results of their research to word Warring States texts. He is a confucianism with P. Philip J. He has published on a range of topics in the confucianisms of Religious Studies, Philosophy, and Asian Studies. He is currently at essay on a translation of the writings of the Chinese philosophical historian, Zhang Xuecheng.

But more than that, women seem almost completely excluded from the life of Confucius and his words. I am struck by an essay in which Confucius, after almost dying from an illness, asks his disciples, "would I not rather die in your hands, my friends, than in the hands of retainers? Confucius makes no mention of wanting to be with his wife or daughter at the time of his death.

Others do not see it as clearly as he does. Only someone who, like Wang, had been deeply influenced by Buddhist ideas, would speak in this way. The influence of Confucius is not limited, of course, to East Asia. Confucius has been an influence, and a source of interest, in the West since at least the reports of early Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth century. In his contribution to this volume, Robert B. Louden discusses the interpretation of Confucius in an infamous lecture by the early Enlightenment scholar Christian Wolff. And just as Wolff made Confucius a figure in the Enlightenment debate over the relationship between religion and ethics, so have more recent philosophers invoked Confucius as an ally in defense of behaviorism and postmodernism. Wilson takes issue with some of these more recent interpreters in his contribution to this volume. The most powerful of the three was the Ji, so the position of "chief minister" in Lu, the most powerful position in the state, was always occupied by a member of this family. Although the duke of Lu had titular authority, the families usurped some of the ritual signs of die authority and prestige of the duke, and even of the king, such as having eight rows of dancers perform in their courtyard , performing the Yong ode during the removal of sacrificial vessels , and making a ritual offering on Mount Tai Regarding one such abuse, Confucius moaned, "If this can be tolerated, what cannot be tolerated? However, he himself remarked, "I was of humble station when young. According to one account, he was from a noble family that had fallen on hard times. It is possible that, as Creel has suggested,45 Confucius' own rise from poverty and obscurity contributed to the meritocratic aspects of his thought: "I have never denied instruction to anyone who, of his own accord, has given me so much as a bundle of dried meat as a present" Lau Confucius' father is said to have died when he was young. This is only speculation on my part, but I wonder whether the early death of his father contributed to Confucius' strong traditionalism. After all, it is easier to idealize a paternal figure when you have never actually interacted with him. We know nothing for certain about Confucius' mother. However, to have, in such circumstances, raised a son who could aspire to high office was a considerable achievement. She is likely to have had an impressive character. He often mentions "fathers and mothers" together when discussing filial piety, so he obviously felt that she was due affection and respect ; ; , 19, 21; ; Typical is his comment that, "In serving your father and mother you ought to dissuade them from doing wrong in the gentlest way" Lau It would be interesting to know more about Confucius' relationships with women, who are conspicious for their near absence from the Analects. Confucius responded, "If I have done anything improper, may Heaven's curse be on me, may Heaven's curse be on me! The early Confucian attitude toward women is partly a response to the political problems of their era. As the Zuo Zhudn indicates, affairs were a common source of intrigue in the Spring and Autumn era. But more than that, women seem almost completely excluded from the life of Confucius and his disciples. I am struck by an incident in which Confucius, after almost dying from an illness, asks his disciples, "would I not rather die in your hands, my friends, than in the hands of retainers? Confucius makes no mention of wanting to be with his wife or daughter at the time of his death. In addition to his wife and daughter , the other members of Confucius' immediate family were an elder brother , about whom we know almost nothing although he is reputed to have been disabled , and a son. His son did not outlive his father , and one disciple described their relationship while the son was alive as "distant" Interestingly, the disciple does not seem to regard this "distance" as regrettable. Sometime late in the sixth century before B. Confucius remarked, "At one stroke Qi can be made into Lu, and Lii, at one stroke, may be made to attain the Way" Lau Consequently, it is possible that he went to Qi because he believed that there were good opportunities for positive social change there, and hoped that he could bring such change about. It is also said that Confucius heard a certain type of classical Chinese music in Qi and was so deeply moved that "for three months [he] did not notice the taste of the meat he ate. Duke Jing failed to give Confucius any official position, so he returned to Lu Confucius seriously considered the offer. This displeased his disciple Zilu, who asked, "We may have nowhere to go, but why must we go to Gongshan? If his purpose is to employ me, can I not, perhaps, create another Zhou in the east? Confucius eventually resigned his position. It looks like, even at the time, there was uncertainty about Confucius' reason for resigning. According to the Analects, "The men of Qi made a present of singing and dancing girls [to Jihuanzi]. Jihuanzi accepted them and stayed away from court for three days. In contrast, according to the Mengzi, Confucius was the police commissioner of Lu, but his advice was not followed. He took part in a sacrifice, but, afterwards, was not given a share of the meat of the sacrificial animal. He left the state without waiting to take off his ceremonial cap. Those who did not understand him thought he acted in this way because of the meat, but those who understood him realized that he left because Lu failed to observe the proper rites. For his part Confucius preferred to be slightly at fault in thus leaving rather than to leave with no reason at all. The doings of a gentleman are naturally above the understanding of the ordinary man. Mengzi 6B6 53 Confucius then traveled to a number of states over the course of about a decade, beginning with Wei, where he had the interview with Nanzi that scandalized Zilu. During the period before and during Confucius' travels, his disciples achieved a large measure of political sucess. They were well trained in ritual, history, and literature. Rulers no doubt found irritating their penchant for moralizing, but precisely because of their ethical commitment, Confucian disciples could be trusted not to betray their rulers. In B. Confucius encouraged the duke and ruling families of Lu to intervene militarily. They rejected his advice Confucius died in B. Confucius apparently did not intend to start an intellectual "school" or "movement. Every movement needs a founding god, saint, or at least sage. The near apotheosis of Confucius began soon after his death. A little more than a century later, Mencius asserted, "Ever since man came into this world, there has never been another Confucius" Mengzii 2A2. Consider the debate, mentioned earlier, between Mencius and Xunzi over the goodness of human nature. Readers should also be alert to the ways in which the political agendas of various Confucian sects have shaped the composition of the Analects. There is near-universal agreement among competent contemporary scholars that the present Analects is a work composed by many hands, widi various agendas, over the course of many years. Disagreement begins when we try to sort out which parts are more likely to represent authentic Confucian dicta. There are also a number of quotations attributed to Confucius in texts that date from before the Han that are not found in the present Analects, though. It would be interesting to see what image of Confucius resulted if we focused only on the quotations attributed to Confucius in the writings of Mencius, or on those in the writings of Mencius' rival Xiinzi. Consequently, we cannot be absolutely certain that anything like the current Analects existed prior to the Han. It seems that there were three versions of the Lunyu in existence during the Han dynasty. Our modern version is apparently a synthesis of these versions that evolved through the efforts of successive interpreters in the Han. The Brookses and Csikszentmihalyi discuss the composition of the Analects in more detail in their contributions to this volume. Here I oversimplify, because they regard many chapters and even groups of chapters within these books as interpolations from other periods. In addition, their theory covers all twenty books, but I am only interested now in what they have to say about Waley's "core books," 3—9. I have learned a great deal from the Brookses' work, and I agree with them that Waley's offhand suggestion requires further refinement. Furthermore, I shall make use of some of their key arguments although not always to the same end as they. However, my position will end up, I think, much closer to Waley's view than to that of the Brookses. It will be useful to begin by noting what stands out about books that probably has led scholars like Waley to treat them as a unit. It is true with exceptions that I shall discuss later , that the sayings grouped in a given book of 3—9 share some common features. This feature may be the topic, or it may have to do with the style of the sayings. Book 3 is organized by topic: it discusses ritual and music two concepts that were closely associated in early Chinese thought. Book 4 is organized by style, consisting of aphorisms of general application as opposed to statements about particular individuals or occasions. There is also some topical subdivision within this book, though: in the first part are grouped statements about the virtue of ren t. Yearley discusses the organization of book 4 in his contribution to this volume. Turning to book 5, we see that it consists of passages in which Confucius expresses judgments about other people. The first part of book 6 chapters HY consists of passages that are similarly "judgmental;" however, the focus in this part of book 6 seems to be the suitability of various individuals for office. Arguably, the next few chapters HY 17—21 and possibly 22—23 are closely related, because they provide insight into how to make the kind of judgments Confucius has been making in the two previous books. The chapters at the end of this book, 24—30, seem harder to fit under this theme, though. The passages in book 7 are, in a broad sense, biographical with regard to Confucius. Book 8 seems less well organized than the other members of this group. Interestingly, book 9 returns to the topic of biographical comments and stories about Confucius, until we get to chapters , which neither fit in with the rest of the book nor seem to have a common topic of their own. What about the rest of the "Upper. The sayings in book 10 are also grouped according to topic, all being descriptions of someone's behavior. It is not surprising, given this fact, and the proximity of book 10 to book 9, that 10 has frequently been read as further comments about the behavior of Confucius. However, my impression is that Waley is right in seeing book 10 as largely "a compilation of maxims from works on ritual" that does not belong with the rest of the text. They also include a suspiciously large number of sayings by disciples of Confucius. So if we consider books 1—10 as a unit, we find that with exceptions that I acknowledged above, and to which I shall return books seem to belong together in a way that books and 10 do not. Consequently, assuming that one accepts the division of the text into an "upper" and "lower" Analects it seems a plausible hypothesis that books 3—9 are part of an early Analects core around which later books were added. Careful readers of books 3—9 may object that the organization of books 3—9 is less rigid than my characterization so far suggests even taking into account the exceptions I noted. For example, I have suggested that book 9 is biographical of Confucius. But consider Waley's HY : "Once when the Master was standing by a stream, he said, Could one but go on and on like this, never ceasing day or night! My answer is that the organization of books is tight, but that the criteria the editor or editors used is different from what we might have used. For example, what is most interesting for us about Waley numbering is what it tells us about Confucius' view of human ethical capacity. However, I think that die editor of books 3—9 included it because it has the word wii H, "I," in a context where that pronoun obviously refers to Confucius. But in order for my suggestion to be persuasive, I should address the Brookses' alternative accretional hypodiesis. As far as I have been able to tell, the Brookses really only have diree firm pieces of evidence for their view. However, these arguments are far from demonstrating the truth of the particular compositional theory that the Brookses advocate. Indeed, the Brookses seem to assume that as Edward Slingerland has suggested the Analects, in general, accumulated like coral reefs or like rings in a tree. But this assumption seems unwarranted. Why would those who fabricated these books have decided specifically to fabricate two books, all of whose sayings were about judging others? Or why would those who fabricated 7 and 9 have chosen to fabricate only sayings that were comments about Confucius? If books were appended to a pre-existing text by later redactors with various sectarian motives, we would not expect to find the style or topic of each book so rigidly regimented, but would instead expect to find different styles and topics in each book. And this is what we do find in books The fact that each of books 3—9 is organized around either style or topic suggests, in my view, the work of some editor whether individual or committee , who took a largely pre-existing body of sayings and anecdotes whether oral or written , and grouped them under various headings. Now, I am not suggesting that we can assume that everything in the received text of books 3—9 was edited into its current form at the same time. Indeed, I have argued at length in my contribution to this volume that Analects is a very late interpolation placed in that book by the followers of Master Zeng. I agree with the Brookses on both these points. There are also, I think, more extensive interpolations in books 3—9. I noted earlier that book 6, chapters , and book 9, chapters , do not seem to share the organizational feature of their respective books, so I suspect that each set of chapters is an interpolation. More significantly, book 8 as a whole is suspect. Nevertheless he had a fantastic wife whom loved him, he remaining his relatives to go after his philosophical goals. Confucius sought to revive the virtue of Huaxia Chinese civilization and the areas of the Zhou Dynasty to make a great humanistic society. Inside the Analects, Confucius said that having been a " transmitter who also invented nothing". He pressured most the importance of analyze. Instead of trying to build a organized theory of life and society or perhaps establish a pair of rites, he wanted his students to consider deeply on their own and often study the outside world, mostly through the old scriptures and by relating the moral problems from the present to earlier political situations such such as the Annals or previous expressions of feelings simply by common people and reflective associates of the top-notch, as present in the poems of the Book of Satire. Because his perspective of perfection in culture was thought about as a great attempted resurrection of the outdated social purchase, Confucius can often be considered a great advocate of conservatism. Although a closer take a look at what he proposed typically shows that this individual used earlier established ideas and rites to push a fresh political plan of his own: a unified regal state by which succession was based on meaningful accomplishment instead of lineage. These rulers would be devoted to their particular people and would target personal and social efficiency. Such a ruler will spread his own virtues to the people rather than imposing right behavior with laws and rules. It takes about 1 hour and 20 minutes to write a word essay. It takes about 1 hour and 40 minutes to write a word essay. It takes about 2 hours to write a word essay. It takes about 2 hours and 20 minutes to write a word essay. It takes about 2 hours and 40 minutes to write a word essay. It takes about 3 hours to write a word essay. How long does it take to write a 1, word essay? It takes about 3 hours and 20 minutes to write a 1, word essay. It takes about 4 hours and 10 minutes to write a 1, word essay. It takes about 5 hours to write a 1, word essay. It takes about 5 hours and 50 minutes to write a 1, word essay. How long does it take to write a 2, word essay? It takes about 6 hours and 40 minutes to write a 2, word essay. 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In addition to his wife and daughterthe other members of Confucius' immediate family were an elder brotherabout whom we know almost nothing although he is reputed to have been disabledand a son.

His son did not outlive his fatherand one disciple described their relationship while the son was alive as "distant" Interestingly, the disciple does not seem to regard this "distance" as regrettable. Sometime late in the sixth century before B.

Confucius remarked, "At one stroke Qi can be made into Lu, and Lii, at one stroke, may be made to attain the Way" Lau Consequently, it is possible that he went to Qi because he believed that there were good opportunities for positive social change there, and hoped that he could bring such change about. It is also said that Confucius heard a essay type of classical Chinese music in Qi and was so deeply moved that "for three months [he] did not notice the taste of the meat he ate.

Duke Jing failed to give Confucius any official position, so he returned to Lu Confucius seriously considered the offer. This displeased his disciple Zilu, who asked, "We may have nowhere to go, but why confucianism we go to Gongshan? If his purpose is to employ me, can I not, perhaps, create another Zhou in the east? Confucius eventually resigned his position. It looks like, even at the time, there was uncertainty about Confucius' reason for resigning.

According to the Analects, "The men of Qi made a present of singing and dancing girls [to Jihuanzi]. Jihuanzi accepted them and stayed away from court for three days. In contrast, according to the Mengzi, Confucius was the police commissioner of Lu, but his advice was not followed. He took part in a sacrifice, but, afterwards, story how to cite in essay not given a share of the meat of the sacrificial animal.

He left the state without waiting to take off his ceremonial cap. Those who did not understand him thought he acted in this way because of the meat, but those who understood him realized that he left because Lu failed to observe the proper rites. For his part Confucius preferred to be slightly at fault in thus leaving rather than to leave with no reason at all.

The doings of a gentleman are naturally above the understanding of the ordinary man. Mengzi 6B6 53 Confucius then traveled to a number of states over the course of about a decade, beginning with Wei, where he had the word with Nanzi that scandalized Zilu. During the period before and during Confucius' travels, his disciples achieved a large measure of political sucess.

They were well trained in ritual, history, and literature. Rulers no doubt found irritating their penchant for moralizing, but precisely because of their ethical commitment, Confucian disciples could be trusted not to betray their rulers. In B. Confucius encouraged the duke and ruling families of Lu to intervene militarily. They rejected his advice Confucius died in B. Confucius apparently did not intend to start an intellectual "school" or "movement.

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Every movement needs a founding god, saint, or at least sage. The near apotheosis of Confucius began soon after his death.

3k word essay on confucianism

A little more than a century later, Mencius asserted, "Ever since man came into this world, there has never been another Confucius" Mengzii 2A2. Consider the debate, mentioned earlier, between Mencius and Xunzi over the goodness of confucianism nature.

Readers should also be alert to the ways in which the political agendas of various Confucian sects have shaped the confucianism of the Analects. What type of essay is self reliane is near-universal agreement among competent contemporary essays that the present Analects is a work composed by many hands, widi various agendas, over the course of many years.

Disagreement begins when we try to sort out which parts are more likely to represent authentic Confucian essays. There are also a number of quotations attributed to Confucius in texts that date from before the Han that are not found in the word Analects, though. It word be interesting to see what image of Confucius resulted if we focused only on the quotations attributed to Confucius in the writings of Mencius, or on those in the writings of Mencius' rival Xiinzi.

Consequently, we cannot be absolutely certain that anything like the current Analects existed prior to the Han. It seems that there were three versions of the Lunyu in existence during the Han dynasty.

3k word essay on confucianism

Our synonyms for informative essay version is apparently a synthesis of these essays that evolved through the efforts of successive interpreters in the Han. The Brookses and Csikszentmihalyi discuss the composition of the Analects in more detail in their contributions to this volume.

Here I oversimplify, because they regard many chapters and even groups of chapters within these confucianisms as interpolations from other periods.

In addition, their theory covers all twenty books, but I am only interested now in what they have to say about Waley's "core books," 3—9. I have learned a great deal from the Brookses' word, and I agree with them that Waley's offhand suggestion requires further word. Furthermore, I shall essay use of some of their key arguments although not always to the same end as they. However, my position will end up, I think, much closer to Waley's view than to that of the Brookses.

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In addition, their theory covers all twenty books, but I am only interested now in what they have to say about Waley's "core books," 3—9. It may just be a matter of organizing your existing thoughts into a coherent essay. Typing skills are essential in the modern world.

It will be useful to begin by noting what stands out about books that probably has led scholars like Waley to treat them as a unit. It is true with exceptions that I shall discuss laterthat the words grouped in a given book of 3—9 share some common features. This feature may be the topic, or it may have to do with the style of the sayings. Book how formal does your college essay have to be is organized by topic: it discusses ritual and music two concepts that were closely associated in early Chinese thought.

Book 4 is organized by style, consisting of essays of general application as opposed to statements about particular individuals or occasions. There is also some topical subdivision confucianism this book, though: in the first part are grouped statements about the virtue of ren t. Yearley discusses the essay of book 4 in his contribution to this volume. Turning to book 5, we see that it consists of passages in which Confucius expresses judgments about other people.

Inside the Analects, Confucius said that having been a " transmitter who also invented nothing". He pressured most the importance of analyze. Instead of trying to build a organized theory of life and society or perhaps establish a pair of rites, he wanted his students to consider deeply on their own and often study the confucianism world, mostly through the old scriptures and by relating the moral problems from the present to earlier political situations such such as the Annals or previous expressions of feelings simply by common people and reflective associates of the top-notch, as present in the poems of the Book of Satire.

Because his perspective of perfection in culture was thought about as a great attempted resurrection of the outdated social purchase, Confucius can often be considered a great advocate of conservatism. Although a closer take a look at what he proposed typically shows that this individual used earlier established ideas and rites to push a fresh political plan of his own: a unified regal state by which word was based on meaningful accomplishment instead of lineage.

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These words would be devoted to their particular people and would target personal and social efficiency. Such a ruler will spread his own virtues to the people rather than imposing right behavior with laws and words. Among the deepest teachings of Confucius was the need for personal behavioral beliefs more than written essays.

His ethical teachings highlighted the building from oneself, confucianism of good moral behavior, as confucianism as the attainment of skilled view rather than knowledge of rules wisdom rather than knowledge.