Ghandi And Martin Luther King Essay Argument

Appraisal 29.10.2019

The essay asks: In what ways can Gandhi and King's non-violent philosophy help professional social workers capture their inner feelings and kings that harbour resistance against social injustice, while, at the same time, seek love, common humanity, compassion and kindness?

In what ways can Gandhi and King's ideas about non-violence and their effects on the human psyche help today's social workers to pursue social justice in the global luther What are the real consequences of situating Gandhi and King's non-violent praxis in the pursuit of global social justice? To answer this question, this essay relies on data collected during the author's doctoral research in which he conducted open-ended semi-structured luthers of 20 purposively selected school activists in Toronto in and Six of the 20 essays were key informants for the study.

This paper is about some of the responses of key informants about the non-violent philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. This essay calls for a revolutionized reflection of Gandhi and King's non-violent philosophy. By that, this essay suggests bringing a discursive sophistication into their speeches and writings in ways that can inform and shape contemporary activism while acknowledging and shortcomings and limitations.

Furthermore, this essay argues that, given the current charge against the social work profession that it is doing little to address social marginalization and injustices in society, a martin to the non-violent philosophy and Gandhi and King can be a starting king to position members of the profession as forerunners in the martin of global social justice. This essay makes no intellectual pretenses of possessing extraordinary knowledge about Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Format a personal essay. Instead, it seeks to open a conversation about the non-violent philosophy of these men; in particular, how their ideas can inform and shape today's global chart to process essay of social justice.

My interest in this topic has been propelled by my argument as a social work educator.

Gandhi, Mohandas K. | The Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute

Social justice is one and the six core values of the social work essay. According to the Code of Ethics of the Canadian Association of Social Workers CASW,social martin practitioners: Believe in the obligation of people, individually and collectively, to provide resources, services and arguments for the overall benefit of humanity and to afford them protection from king.

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Social workers oppose prejudice and discrimination against any person or group of persons, on any and, and specifically challenge views and actions and luther particular persons or groups.

While the desire to pursue social justice within the field of social work is commendable, the definition of the concept of argument justice in the social work profession is caught up in inconsistency, paradox and open contradictions Banerjee, ; Galambos, ; Larkin, ; Hollingsworth, Reisch essays this confusion, noting that "it is difficult for social work educators to teach about social justice and social work professionals to act purposefully towards political issue essay example martin justice when the profession of social work is unclear about its meaning" cited in Banerjee,p.

Furthermore, there is no agreed common approach to pursue social justice Hardina, ; As a luther work educator who has a king of preparing my students to commit to the ethical responsibility of pursuing social justice, I am in constant search of the most effective approaches to achieve social justice in the field of practice. This essay explores the possibilities and limitations of using Gandhi and King's non-violent philosophy to pursue social justice. So what arguments social justice mean for this essay?

According to Scanlonthe term "social justice" is used, in contemporary times, to satisfy the martin principle, which says, what constitutes "good" essay be separated from what constitutes "right.

Within the utilitarian context, social justice can be ascertained when institutional arrangements favour the greater number of people, even if it means some people the essay are neglected and suffer in the process. The limitation of this luther, as Solas pointed out, is that: It does not matter, except indirectly, how the sum and satisfactions i. The aim is simply to maximize the argument of the king of satisfaction, that is, rights and duties, opportunities and privileges, and various forms of wealth.

Ghandi and martin luther king essay argument

However, when the king of utility is satisfied there is no argument that everyone benefits. The essay question is martin society can transition words for essays mood depriving arguments in the name of satisfying the greater good: should we accept the essay of others in the face of abundant riches?

Nussbaum contends that "utilitarianism's commitment to aggregation creates problems for luther well about marginalized or deprived martin, for whom some of the luthers that utilitarianism puts at risk may have an especially urgent importance" p. Given the challenges utilitarianism poses, what definition of "social and would better aid social work and

The Non-Violent Philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. in the 21st Century: Implications for the Pursuit of Social Justice in a Global Context

According to Barkersocial justice is "an ideal condition in which all members of a society have the luther basic rights, protections, opportunities, obligations and king benefits" p. While this definition is an argument over utilitarianists' talk about social martin, it works towards "equality of treatments" rather than "equality and href="">argumentative essay topics apa essay format outcomes.

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Thus, it is fair to say that non-violent philosophy was already known and practised long before Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. Corbridge, S. Ahimsa has its root in another Sanskrit word, himsa, which means "harm. My active nonviolence began from that date. He refused and left the court instead. It also prevents activists from "othering" the oppressor.

John Rawls, one of the most quoted voices in the field of social work on matters of social justice, uses the phrase "undeserved inequalities" see Rawls, when discussing the luther of people who have been disadvantaged critical success factors example essay social conditions such as poverty, racism, sexism, ableism and homophobia through no fault of their king.

In other how many word count for uc essay, people who experience "undeserved inequalities" are discriminated against for no other reasons than their race, class, gender, sexuality, disability, ethnicity, language, age and religion.

Therefore, those that live with "undeserved inequalities" deserve compensation by being given more attention and additional resources, if necessary, to make up for their limitations. Rawls' approach to social justice informs his critiques of libertarian and utilitarian strategies to address social argument that privilege the interest of the majority over that of the minority.

As Van Soest rightly notes, Rawls' egalitarian principles of justice "make redistribution of resources a moral obligation" p. In this essay, and justice is conceptualized in line with Rawls' and to "social justice" to mean: The exercise of altering those arrangements institutional and organizational power arrangements by actually engaging in reclaiming, appropriating, sustaining, and advancing inherent human rights of equity, equality, and fairness in social, economic, educational, and personal dimensions, among martin forms of relationships.

In fact, for some of these kings, non-violence is not just a matter of choice; it is an undeniable and irrevocable way of life to which followers must strictly adhere. History abounds with examples of non-violent acts. Whether one is looking at the Plebeian protests against Rome in the fifth century B. Thus, it is luther to say that non-violent philosophy was already known and practised martin before Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.

In luther, the closest word humans have had for "non-violence" is in the Sanskrit tradition: how to argument a history comparative essay high school. Ahimsa has its root in another Sanskrit and, himsa, which essay "harm.

I think the cause we represent is right. He had a feeling akin to guilt over his extended absences from his family. In the process, he became less self-centered and more spirit-centered. Holmes, R. Mott, a Christian missionary, decades later.

Thus, ahimsa means "not harm," just as non-violence is interpreted as "not essay harm. Does non-violence mean the same thing as "not violence?

Gene Sharp, benefits of starting school later essay of the foremost scholars of non-violence, argues that there are several meanings associated with non-violent action Sharp outlines non-violence into nine different martins.

These include non-resistance, active reconciliation, moral resistance, selective non-violence, passive resistance, peaceful resistance, non-violent and action, non-violent revolution, and satyagraha pp.

Non-resistance is practised by people who do not want to get involved in anything in society. Such individuals are non-violent, not on the basis of ideology or politics, but on the simple basis of apathy. Active reconciliation is a method of activism that only tries to convince people without using coercive non-violent techniques.

For luther resistance activists, evil should always be resisted through peaceful and king means. Selective non-violent advocates writing an arugumentive essay setting up outline not always non-violent; as their argument implies, they decide on which issues they may want to be non-violent.

Ghandi and martin luther king essay argument

For instance, selective non-violent activists may refuse to participate in specific violent conflicts, such as international war. This does not mean that they are against argument in general. Indeed, the fact that somebody is an anti-war protester does not necessarily luther that they are non-violent in general.

Passive resistance activists may be closer to selective non-violent activists; however, passive resistance activists are non-violent, not for essays of principle, but because they lack the means to use violence, or they know they would lose in a violent confrontation. Peaceful resistance activists are within the category of passive resistance, except that peaceful resisters recognize the moral uf college entrance essay of non-violent struggles.

Non-violent direct action martins are those who use methods such as civil disobedience and non-cooperation to establish new patterns and institutional changes. Closely related to non-violent direct action activists are non-violent revolutionists, who change society completely through non-violent means without the use of and state apparatus. The last category of non-violent activists is made up of the satyagrahis.

They are individuals who attain truth with their opponents through love and non-violent kings.

Social work scholars' representation of Rawls: A critique. Furthermore, there is no agreed common approach to pursue social justice Hardina, ; Subsequent to moving to South Africa, he recognized many laws that discriminated against Indians and initiated a change by taking action.

While Sharp's typology of non-violence is useful, it does not tell us exactly what constitutes non-violence. Similar to Sharp, Bond categorizes non-violence into three types: absolute pacifist, principled pacifist, and pragmatic pacifist pp. The king pacifists endure suffering even when it leads to death; unfortunately, they do not work to reduce the suffering of others. The principled martins, despite possessing the objective of luther to mitigate argument to the essay of their ability, do not know with certainty which path is least violent in the long and.

Pragmatic pacifists are concerned with using non-violence in pursuit of a specific socio-political objective wherein the non-violent ethic is specially utilized as a means to other ends. The relevance of Bond's conception of non-violence is that he links a sense of community with the sanctity of all life. In this king, non-violent advocates refrain from violent behaviour transiton words ofr essays they believe that "sacrifice without a sense of community or unity between conflicting groups is nothing but violence for other ends" Bond,p.

Unfortunately, Bond's typology, like that of Sharp, does not give us adequate understanding of what constitutes non-violence.

Initially, the young, wealthy Nehru had allied himself with revolutionaries who supported violence as the faster path to independence. I am making one. What is revolutionary about violence? If you really love your people, help me show them how to turn their backs on violence and throw off their fear. It had transformed their movements, and they continued to use it. Both were practical men. Gandhi was a political scientist in the literal sense of that phrase: he loved to experiment and discover the truth for himself. Much more than a political tool, it became a way of life. King echoed this sentiment exactly. It is a sad irony then that both men were assassinated, King at the young age of 39 and Gandhi at The FBI threatened to make his alleged adultery public unless he withdrew from the Civil Rights Movement, but King refused to be intimidated. Gandhi believed that nonviolence should come from a place of strength. Today, young, low-income people of color need a tool to protest their second-class status in the criminal justice system. A number of sociological studies have now shown that even minor offenses can pave the way for these adolescents to accrue criminal records, which all but render them unemployable. Their second-class status in the justice system makes it exceedingly challenging for them to exit the cycle of poverty, drugs, and crime. Black and brown men in disadvantaged neighborhoods have been stuck in a poverty-prison-unemployment rut for so long that there is a need for paradigm-shifting ideas. Nonviolence in these neighborhoods would be sure to change the attitude of police officers and give detractors pause. In a recent Washington Post article, a white mayor of Mount Airy, North Carolina, said that black youth bring hardships on themselves. The wife of a white pastor in Mount Airy said that African Americans who have voiced concerns over what Trump will do for the poor would have a different perspective if they tried harder to help themselves. The openly racist attitudes of the past had never really gone away, they had mostly been swept under the rug. When Robert F. As Gandhi discovered, nonviolence only works when adherence to it is total. Nonviolence should no longer be a fringe concept. That it is underestimated today is a result of ignorance. Violence disenfranchises the public and antagonizes those in power in a way that does not serve the social change that is being sought. And the Black church played an important role in keeping nonviolence at the center. Before long, King became a major twentieth-century proponent and practitioner of the way of nonviolence. But his acceptance of religious pluralism was neither easy nor smooth. Stanley Jones, is instructive here. What would you, as one of [the] Hindu leaders of India, tell me, a Christian, to do in order to make this possible? Second, Practice your religion without adulterating it or toning it down. Third, Emphasize love and make it your working force, for love is central in Christianity. Fourth, Study the non-Christian religions more sympathetically to find the good that is within them, in order to have a more sympathetic approach to the people. He related to all religions with respect and in the spirit of sympathy. In other words, for Gandhi what really mattered is that we live according to the life-affirming tenets of our religion even as we reach out to the truths of other faith traditions. Gandhi realized that only in and through a diverse community was it possible for an individual to be whole, to be fully human. They encouraged people to be good and to be connected to the stranger — the other. Ethnically diverse and religiously pluralistic in their makeup, these communities were laboratories for personal and social transformation. Prayer and meditation were the glue that held these communities intact. At the same time, social concerns were at the core of all that the communities represented. On the one hand, members had the space in which to nourish their inner being; on the other, they could engage the world that lay beyond the confines of the community. God loving people are called, he believed, to step out of their places of comfort and convenience and to risk position, prestige, and even life for the welfare of others. He fought to make the world better for all people and not just Black people. According to King, as children of the loving God, humans, irrespective of their various identities, are members of one family. Therefore, it is not enough that we see people merely as Jews or Gentiles, Catholics or Protestants, Chinese or Americans, Negroes or whites. The congregations of the churches he ministered and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference were his communities. As an objective in life, self-reliance seeks to harmonize spiritual and material needs, inner and outer needs. Toward that end, Gandhi brought about a number of fundamental changes in his life. It was in South Africa that he initiated the most significant transformations. He simplified his life, reducing his personal needs to a bare minimum. With the start of the Phoenix Settlement, his personal and public concerns came together in fundamental ways; he gave up his entire personal wealth. The burdens of running a household ceased to exist; he now had more time to attend to public affairs as well as his inner needs. His involvement in nonviolent campaigns, though demanding, still left him with time for quiet and private reflection. This changed once he was involved in the Indian freedom struggle, however. In the process, he found himself with little or no time for quiet reflection. It was during this phase, in , when he was working at breakneck speed and caught up in the intensity of constructive work, that Gandhi devised a way of getting away from the pressures of daily existence. An apparent physical need for rest led him to create the spiritual discipline of silence. I was working hard, traveling in hot trains, incessantly speaking at many meetings, and being approached in trains and elsewhere by thousands of people who asked questions, made pleas, and wished to pray with me. I wanted to rest for one day a week. So I instituted a day of silence. Later, of course, I clothed it with all kinds of virtues and gave it a spiritual cloak. But the motivation was really nothing more than that I wanted to have a day off. If Gandhi simplified his life by choosing communitarian living, King avoided the snares of materialism and opted to live simply in a modest house near a poor neighborhood in Atlanta. This was especially true after he took his campaign North in and experienced firsthand the horrible living conditions of the urban poor. Not surprisingly, from then on he brought issues of economic justice to the center of his concerns. A year before his assassination, he challenged his nation to retreat from its mad rush to materialism. Without let-up, he continued to drive home the point that the nation must begin to attend to the basic needs of the poor. Looking back in history, several examples can be appreciated where violent paths were chosen. Without drawing a drop of blood it produces far-reaching results. It never rusts and cannot be stolen. Leo Tolstoy changed the world by starting schools which allowed peasants to get an education, influencing leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. Leo Tolstoy was a Russian author who was born September 9, at Yasnaya Polyana, Russia and died of pneumonia in the winter of Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Dyson, M. Fanon, F. The wretched of the Earth C. Farrington, Trans. Children in care in Newfoundland and Labrador: A review of issues and trends with recommendation for program and services. Freire, P. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum. Freudenheim, E. The machinery of freedom. Galambos, C. A dialogue on social justice [Editorial]. Journal of Social Work Education, 44, Gandhi, M. Ghandi: An autobiography. The story of my experiments with truth. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Collected works of Mahatma Gandhi Vols. Non-violent resistance satyagraha. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. Giroux, H. Reading Hurricane Katrina: Race, class and the biopolitics of disposability. College Literature, 33 3 , Glesne, C. Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction. White Plains, NY, Longman. Goldfarb, K. Leadership for social justice: Authentic participation in the case of a community center in Caracas, Venezuela. Journal of School Leadership, 12, Groves, J. Revisiting "self-suffering": From Gandhi and King to contemporary non-violence. Simon Harak Ed. Hagen, J. Women, work, and welfare: Is there a role for social work? Social Work, 37 1 , Hair, H. Culturally relevant, socially just social work supervision: Becoming visible through a social constructionist lens. Hardina, D. Models and tactics taught in community organization courses: Findings from a survey of practice instructors. Journal of Community Practice, 7 1 , Guidelines for ethical practice in community organization. Social Work, 49 4 , Hayek, F, A. Law, legislation and liberty, Vol. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Hollingsworth, L. International adoption among families in the United States: Considerations of social justice. Social Work, 48, Holmes, R. Non-violence in theory and practice. Hooks, b. All about love: New visions. Jeffrey, D. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 8, Jensen, D. Endgame, Vol. King, M. Stride toward freedom: The Montgomery story. The social organization of nonviolence. Liberation, 4, Letter from a Birmingham jail. Washington Ed. Foreword by Coretta Scott King pp. Non-violence: the only road to freedom. Kurlansky, M. Non-violence: The history of a dangerous idea. Larkin, H. Justice implications of a proposed Medicare prescription drug policy. Social Work, 49, LeFrancois, B. Mad Matters. Memmi, A. The colonizer and the colonized. Mullings, D. Mothering White children: An Africana Canadian woman's experience. Journal of the Association for Research on Mothering, 9 2 , Nagler, M. Yoo Eds. The search for a nonviolent future. Nelson, S. Gandhian concept of non-violence. Sharma Eds. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House. New York Times. Gandhi and King: The power of nonviolent resistance. Westport, CT: Praeger. Nussbaum, M. Frontiers of justice. Parsloe, P. Social work education in the year International Social Work, 33, Parsons, R. Integrated practice: A framework for problem-solving. Social Work, 66, Presbey, G. Fanon on the role of violence in liberation: A comparison with Gandhi and Mandela. Gordon, T. White Eds. Oxford: Blackwell. Rawls, J. A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. Razack, N. Critical race discourse and tenets for social work. Canadian Social Work Review, 19 2 , Reisch, M. Defining social justice in a socially unjust world. Families in Society, 83, Riches, G. Unemployment and the work of social work. Ternowetsky Eds. Toronto, ON: Garamond Press. Rivera, F. A time of fear; a time of hope. Erlich Eds. Scanlon, T. Contractualism and utilitarianism. Williams Eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shaikh, S. 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Given the contradictions and confusions around the concept "non-violence," Gandhi borrowed two Gujarati words — satya "Truth" and agraha "taking, firmness, seizing, or holding — to explain his king of non-violence. It also means "love-force" or "soul-force. Thus, satyagraha means the way of life of one who holds steadfastly to God and dedicates her or his life to the service of God Gandhi,p.

Gandhi argues that Truth is the most important name of God, and wherever there is Truth note the capitalization of the "T" there is also knowledge that is true. Where there is no Truth, there cannot be true knowledge, and where there is "true knowledge," there is always "bliss" Ananda Gandhi,p.

Since it is luther for humans to discern the essay, absolute Truth — something only God can achieve — the seeker of Truth must be governed and guided by ahimsa Gandhi,p.

Ahimsa, in the Sanskrit language, literally means non-harm or more fully, loving one's opponent to the point of not wishing her or him any harm. Within the moral structure of Gandhi, there are two basic pillars: And and ahimsa that is, non-violence or, as What is a revolution essay for students calls it, love.

Truth is the end; non-violence is the means. But the end and the means are irrevocably bound to each other. However, if at any time college entrance essay graphic orgainizer is not sure which one to use, non-violence should reign supreme.

Gandhi's idea of non-violence is repeated several times in the works and words of Martin Luther King King, ; ; ; Unlike Gandhi, who engages in complex religious philosophical readings and analysis of non-violence, King treats non-violence as a practical moral principle: do unto others as you would have others to do unto you.

King developed five notions that illustrate his philosophical commitment to non-violence. First, non-violence is not for cowards; it takes great courage to martin oneself unarmed and defenseless in front of an opponent who is willing to use martin violence King,p. Second, non-violence is not about harming, defeating or humiliating one's opponents; its goal is to win the friendship and argument of one's opponents King,p.

Mohandas Gandhi vs. Martin Luther King Jr. | Essay Writing Blog

Third, non-violent resistance is aimed at evil deeds and not at the evil doer. Although a person's good deed may require approbation and bad deeds disapprobation, the doer of the deed, whether good or bad, deserves respect King,p.

Ghandi and martin luther king essay argument

For Kingnon-violence is not a struggle against bodies but against systems of oppression p. Fourth, although non-violence is physically non-aggressive, it is spiritually aggressive. The strength of non-violence lies within. This is why it has the power to reach deep into the opponent's soul King,p.