If the quantitative data is categorized, the category boundaries should be reported. For a time period, the relative risk and absolute risk should be translated into meaningful data. If any other analyses are done such as, analyses of subgroups and interactions, and sensitivity analyses should also be reported. It is strongly recommended that the participant flow should be explained in the form of flow diagram.
The numbers of participants who were randomly assigned into each group should be mentioned, along with those who received treatment and who were analyzed for the primary outcome. After randomization, those participants who were lost or excluded for each group should also be mentioned.
The recruitment period and follow up date should be stated. The reason for ending or stopping the trial should be declared.
The baseline demographic and clinical characteristics should be illustrated in the form of table. The number of participants denominator for each group included in each analysis should be mentioned and whether the analysis was by original assigned groups.
The results report the primary and secondary outcomes for each group with the estimated effect size and its precision e. The absolute and relative effect size should be presented for binary outcomes. The subgroup analyses and adjusted analyses for pre-specified and exploratory analyses should be stated. As per the specific guidelines under ethics for harms, it is necessary to report all important harms or unintended effects in each group.
The above description is on checklists for observational and clinical trial studies and there are checklists for other kinds of studies too in the literature. There are many statistical terms  ,  used while writing the results section.
Some commonly used statistical terms are given in [Table 10]. Table Some statistical terms commonly used in results section Summary Writing a manuscript of a research article or a thesis on public health or any scientific subject is a stupendous process for learning writers. Even though the IMRAD format is followed, the results section is written first that provides new information related to answering the research question.
Sometimes first in the order of writing manuscript, methods section is preferred to results section as the former is already written section at the protocol level and only requires to be re-written in past tense. To make a beginning of results section writing, it is essential to understand its association with data summaries expected to give answers to the research questions attempted to answer.
Results section attempts to present the results of the analysis obtained on data collected on the investigation of interest after application of appropriate statistical tools. This communication attempts to present the link between data summarization and writing text part of the results section. Questionnaire, schedule or proformae are the commonly used data collection tools.
Data can be either numerical or quantitative or categorical. Numerical or quantitative data can be further classified as discrete or continuous. Categorical data can be nominal or ordinal. Various methods of summarization of data include tables, graphs or numbers. Depending on the type of analysis the tables can be one-dimension or one-way or two-dimension two-way.
Excel sheet is used for data entry and data analyses are done using statistical packages. Data summaries are generally prepared and presented through tables and graphs. Trends are displayed using graphs such as bar, pie, line, and scatter diagram.
Data summarization can be descriptive or inferential. Descriptive summarization can be performed in the form of graphs, as histograms, quantile—quantile plot or scatter plot. The data needs to be classified into different types and then depending on the type of data, appropriate numerical and visual summaries are used.
The estimation and test of hypothesis are the components of inferential summarization. This is dependent on whether the data are qualitative or quantitative. Mean, SD, etc. Involvement of a qualified bio-statistician is recommended as a team member for contribution in study design, statistical analysis and publication. The text part of results is presented in the past tense and all the contents of what is presented in tables and figures should not be repeated in the text results.
As this section provides new information in the related research question attempted to answer, key consideration and rules of writing this section help to produce a good text part of the results section.
Quantitative work Quantitative data, which is typical of scientific and technical research, and to some extent sociological and other disciplines, requires rigorous statistical analysis. By collecting and analysing quantitative data, you will be able to draw conclusions that can be generalised beyond the sample assuming that it is representative — which is one of the basic checks to carry out in your analysis to a wider population.
This can be a time consuming endeavour, as analysing qualitative data is an iterative process, sometimes even requiring the application hermeneutics. It is important to note that the aim of research utilising a qualitative approach is not to generate statistically representative or valid findings, but to uncover deeper, transferable knowledge.
Believing it does is a particularly common mistake in qualitative studies, where students often present a selection of quotes and believe this to be sufficient — it is not.
Rather, you should thoroughly analyse all data which you intend to use to support or refute academic positions, demonstrating in all areas a complete engagement and critical perspective, especially with regard to potential biases and sources of error. It is important that you acknowledge the limitations as well as the strengths of your data, as this shows academic credibility. Presentational devices It can be difficult to represent large volumes of data in intelligible ways.
In order to address this problem, consider all possible means of presenting what you have collected. Charts, graphs, diagrams, quotes and formulae all provide unique advantages in certain situations. Tables are another excellent way of presenting data, whether qualitative or quantitative, in a succinct manner.
The key thing to keep in mind is that you should always keep your reader in mind when you present your data — not yourself. While a particular layout may be clear to you, ask yourself whether it will be equally clear to someone who is less familiar with your research.
Appendix You may find your data analysis chapter becoming cluttered, yet feel yourself unwilling to cut down too heavily the data which you have spent such a long time collecting. Contact Us for Professional Thesis Results Chapter Help We are always waiting on our customers to contact us with their thesis writing needs; be it writing of one chapter, or the whole thesis.
All you need to do is get in touch with us and we will come up with a suitable work-plan for your thesis based on the time you have and the number of pages needed for each chapter. Our thesis writing services are professional and success is guaranteed. Do not struggle with thesis results chapter while you can get help at affordable prices.Sometimes first in the order of writing manuscript, methods section is preferred to results section as the former is already written section at the protocol level and only requires to be re-written in past tense. Flow diagram showing the different stages of study should be considered. All data presented should be relevant and appropriate to your aims. It is important that you acknowledge the limitations as well as the strengths of your data, as this shows academic credibility. It is strongly recommended that the participant flow should be explained in the form of flow diagram.
All data presented should be relevant and appropriate to your aims. Our dissertation writing service, offered by our network of over 3, world-class academic writers, can provide you with a model dissertation you can use as a customised map to the results you need. The order of presentation by some authors is quite haphazard and not as dictated by the importance of the results presented in results section of the research article. It describes virtues; interpret results, state limitations and future recommendations. While a particular layout may be clear to you, ask yourself whether it will be equally clear to someone who is less familiar with your research. This communication attempts to present the link between data summarization and writing text part of the results section.
Consider various theoretical interpretations and balance the pros and cons of these different perspectives. The overarching aim is to identify significant patterns and trends in the data and display these findings meaningfully. Table 8: Points to remember in results section Click here to view The results of the experiment should be presented in logical sequence to support or provide evidence against the hypotheses, or answer to the question, stated in the introduction. Do not struggle with thesis results chapter while you can get help at affordable prices.
Citing means acknowledging within our own text the related document from which information is obtained. Authors adopt writing approach by reiterating the aim of the study or by specifying the major findings or a few start comparing the findings in the beginning. The outline given below is general, and can be modified to fit into your school's requirements for this chapter because different schools have different requirements. The text part of all the contents of what is presented in tables and graphs should not be repeated in the text results.
Chapter Introduction The introduction part of the thesis chapter four provides a smooth transition from the methodology chapter. Citing means acknowledging within our own text the related document from which information is obtained.
Relation with literature Towards the end of your data analysis, it is advisable to begin comparing your data with that published by other academics, considering points of agreement and difference. Our dissertation writing service, offered by our network of over 3, world-class academic writers, can provide you with a model dissertation you can use as a customised map to the results you need. Discuss reasons as well as implications. Charts, graphs, diagrams, quotes and formulae all provide unique advantages in certain situations. The hypothesis needs to reformulated if the anticipated results are not obtained or there is absence of an effect.
Even though the results do not support the hypothesis, they may be of importance to others. For a cohort study, the average and total follow-up time should be summarized.